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  1. Content type: Research article

    A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety/depression and duration/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

    Authors: Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh, Malek Mansour Aghssa, Nasrin Abedinia, Farid Zayeri, Navid Khanafshar, Mamak Shariat and Mina Jafarabadi

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4:9

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Premature Ovarian Failure (POF), defined as the development of hypergonadotropic amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, occurs in about 1% of all women. Other than karyotype abnormalities, very few genes are k...

    Authors: Anne Fogli, Fernande Gauthier-Barichard, Raphael Schiffmann, Vien H Vanderhoof, Vladimir K Bakalov, Lawrence M Nelson and Odile Boespflug-Tanguy

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4:8

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Elevated pregnancy estrogen levels are associated with increased risk of developing breast cancer in mothers. We studied whether pregnancy weight gain that has been linked to high circulating estrogen levels, ...

    Authors: Tarja I Kinnunen, Riitta Luoto, Mika Gissler, Elina Hemminki and Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4:7

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  4. Content type: Research article

    We have previously shown that use of an EC brush device in combination with the Rovers Cervex-Brush (SurePath broom) offered no significant improvement in EC recovery. Here we determine if use of additional co...

    Authors: Sarah J Day, Darla L O'Shaughnessy, Jason C O'Connor and Gregory G Freund

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4:6

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  5. Content type: Report

    The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing ...

    Authors: Bilkis Vissandjee, Marie Desmeules, Zheynuan Cao and Shelly Abdool

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S34

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  6. Content type: Report

    While women are reported to be more frequent users of health services in Canada, differences in women's and men's health care utilization have not been fully explored. To provide an overview on women's healthc...

    Authors: Arminée Kazanjian, Denise Morettin and Robert Cho

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S33

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  7. Content type: Report

    This chapter investigates (1) the association between ethnicity and migration, as measured by length of residence in Canada, and two specific self-reported outcomes: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-repo...

    Authors: Bilkis Vissandjee, Marie Desmeules, Zheynuan Cao, Shelly Abdool and Arminée Kazanjian

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S32

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  8. Content type: Report

    Research has consistently shown that while women generally live longer than men, they report more illness and use of health care services (including medication). In the literature, the reasons for women's elev...

    Authors: Jennifer Payne, Ineke Neutel, Robert Cho and Marie DesMeules

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S29

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  9. Content type: Report

    Canada's standard of perinatal care ranks among the highest in the world, but there is still room for improvement, both in terms of regional differences in care and global comparisons of approaches to care in ...

    Authors: Beverley Chalmers and Shi Wu Wen

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S28

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  10. Content type: Report

    The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in developed countries has changed from the early epidemic that affected primarily men who have sex with men, to...

    Authors: Marene Gatali and Chris Archibald

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S27

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  11. Content type: Report

    The incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is rising in Canada. If these curable infections were prevented and treated, serious long-term sequelae including infertility, and associated t...

    Authors: Thomas Wong, Ameeta Singh, Janice Mann, Lisa Hansen and Sharon McMahon

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S26

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  12. Content type: Report

    Contraception choices affect the long-term sexual health and fertility of women and men. Data from the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study and the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey were assessed for mea...

    Authors: Sharon McMahon, Lisa Hansen, Janice Mann, Cathy Sevigny, Thomas Wong and Marlene Roache

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S25

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  13. Content type: Report

    Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour modul...

    Authors: Lisa Hansen, Janice Mann, Sharon McMahon and Thomas Wong

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S24

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  14. Content type: Report

    The average age of natural menopause in Western societies is estimated to be 51 years; women in Canada can therefore expect to live, on average, a third of their lives in post-menopausal years. During these ye...

    Authors: Angela M Cheung, Ruhee Chaudhry, Moira Kapral, Cynthia Jackevicius and Gail Robinson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S23

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  15. Content type: Report

    Exposure to violence as children or as adults places a woman at higher risk of poor health outcomes, both physical and psychological. Abused women use more health care services and have poorer social functioni...

    Authors: Marsha M Cohen and Heather Maclean

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S22

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  16. Content type: Report

    Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine ...

    Authors: Enza Gucciardi, Nalan Celasun, Farah Ahmad and Donna E Stewart

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S21

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  17. Content type: Report

    Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases exponentially with age from the age of 65. The number of people with dementia will increase significantly over the next three decades as the population ag...

    Authors: Joan Lindsay and Lori Anderson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S20

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  18. Content type: Report

    Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial ...

    Authors: Donna E Stewart, Enza Gucciardi and Sherry L Grace

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S19

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  19. Content type: Report

    Arthritis is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in Canada and a leading cause of long-term disability, pain, and increased health care utilization. It is also a far more prevalent condition among wom...

    Authors: Elizabeth M Badley and Naomi M Kasman

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S18

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  20. Content type: Report

    Chronic pain is a major health problem associated with significant costs to both afflicted individuals and society as a whole. These costs seem to be disproportionately borne by women, who generally have highe...

    Authors: Marta Meana, Robert Cho and Marie DesMeules

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S17

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  21. Content type: Report

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic health condition affecting 4.8% of Canadian adults ≥ 20 years of age. The prevalence increases with age. According to the National Diabetes Surveillance System (NDSS) (1998–...

    Authors: Catherine Kelly and Gillian L Booth

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S16

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  22. Content type: Report

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely ...

    Authors: Sherry L Grace, Rick Fry, Angela Cheung and Donna E Stewart

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S15

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  23. Content type: Report

    In Canada, cancers of the endometrium, ovaries, vulva, vagina, placenta and adnexa account for 11% of all malignant neoplasms in women and 81% of all genital cancers. Although the incidence and mortality from ...

    Authors: Eliane Duarte-Franco and Eduardo L Franco

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S14

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  24. Content type: Report

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases of women; it is diagnosed in almost half a million women every year and half as many die from it annually. In Canada and other industrialized countr...

    Authors: Eliane Duarte-Franco and Eduardo L Franco

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S13

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  25. Content type: Report

    Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for Canadian women, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed. About 5400 women are expected to die from this disease in 2003. In 1998, a woman's...

    Authors: Heather Bryant

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S12

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  26. Content type: Report

    Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health...

    Authors: Marie DesMeules, Linda Turner and Robert Cho

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S10

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  27. Content type: Report

    The sex differences in mortality, life expectancy, and, to a lesser extent, health expectancy, are well recognized in Canada and internationally. However, the factors explaining these differences between women...

    Authors: Marie DesMeules, Douglas Manuel and Robert Cho

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S9

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  28. Content type: Report

    Differences exist in the prevalence and physical health impacts of problem substance use among men and women. These differences are also found in the mental health and trauma events related to substance use, b...

    Authors: Renée A Cormier, Colleen Anne Dell and Nancy Poole

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S8

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  29. Content type: Report

    Smoking among Canadian women is a serious public health issue. Using the 1998–99 National Population Health Survey, this study examined underlying factors contributing to differences in prevalence of smoking a...

    Authors: Susan Kirkland, Lorraine Greaves and Pratima Devichand

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S7

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  30. Content type: Report

    Overweight and obesity have been recognized as major public health concern in Canada and throughout the world. Lack of physical activity, through its impact on energy balance, has been identified as an importa...

    Authors: Shirley Bryan and Peter Walsh

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S6

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  31. Content type: Report

    Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight ...

    Authors: Marion P Olmsted and Traci McFarlane

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S5

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  32. Content type: Report

    There are differences in health practices and self-rated health among different socio-demographic groups of women. The relationship between socio-demographic status and a) a range of health behaviours and b) a...

    Authors: Heather Maclean, Keva Glynn, Zhenyuan Cao and Donna Ansara

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S4

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  33. Content type: Report

    Research on the relationship between women's social roles and mental health has been equivocal. Although a greater number of roles often protect mental health, certain combinations can lead to strain. Our stud...

    Authors: Heather Maclean, Keva Glynn and Donna Ansara

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S3

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  34. Content type: Report

    The discussion of health emphasizes the importance of analyses of social determinants of health. Social determinants permit the targeting of policies towards the social factors that impair or improve health. T...

    Authors: Vivienne Walters

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S2

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  35. Content type: Research article

    Common vaginal infections that manifest in women are usually easily diagnosed. However, Chlamydia infection is often asymptomatic, leading to infertility before it is detected. If it occurs in pregnancy, it co...

    Authors: Saad Ghazal-Aswad, Padmanabhan Badrinath, Nawal Osman, Samar Abdul-Khaliq, Shirley Mc Ilvenny and Islam Sidky

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4:3

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  36. Content type: Study protocol

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition with a major impact on health-related quality of life, work productivity and health care utilisation. The cause of the pain is not always obvious as no pathology is se...

    Authors:

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2003 3:6

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  37. Content type: Research article

    The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this pa...

    Authors: HL Chee, S Rashidah, K Shamsuddin and O Intan

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2003 3:3

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Ovarian antibodies as detected by indirect immunofluorescence have been used to detect ovarian autoimmunity, but to our knowledge the rate of false positive findings using this method has never been reported.

    Authors: Judy A Novosad, Sophia N Kalantaridou, Zhi-Bin Tong and Lawrence M Nelson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2003 3:2

    Published on: