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  1. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is first line treatment in women with World Health Organization (WHO) type II anovulation and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whereas 60% to 85% of these women will ovulate on CC, onl...

    Authors: Marleen J Nahuis, Nienke S Weiss, Fulco van der Veen, Ben Willem J Mol, Peter G Hompes, Jur Oosterhuis, Nils B Lambalk, Jesper MJ Smeenk, Carolien AM Koks, Ron JT van Golde, Joop SE Laven, Ben J Cohlen, Kathrin Fleischer, Angelique J Goverde, Marie H Gerards, Nicole F Klijn…

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:42

    Content type: Study protocol

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  2. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy afflicting women, and the most common cancer overall in Jordan. A woman’s decision to go for screening is influenced by her social support network. This study aims t...

    Authors: Hana Taha, Raeda Al-Qutob, Lennarth Nyström, Rolf Wahlström and Vanja Berggren

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:41

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Approximately 1% of all couples trying to conceive will suffer from recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Nutritional deficiencies have been postulated as a possible cause of RPL and in particular, selenium deficien...

    Authors: Viju V Thomas, Robert Knight, Stephen J Haswell, Stephen W Lindow and Zephne M van der Spuy

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:40

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The effect of commonly used oral contraceptives (OCs) on blood pressure is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between OCs use and blood pressure and the prevalence of hyperten...

    Authors: Hyejin Park and Kisok Kim

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:39

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Understanding contraception from the perspective of the user may help to improve compliance. The aim of this project was to determine the factors that influence the noncompliance in young women that use combin...

    Authors: Txantón Martínez-Astorquiza-Ortiz de Zarate, Teresa Díaz-Martín and Txantón Martínez-Astorquiza-Corral

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:38

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence a...

    Authors: Hazha H Al-Atrushi, Namir G Al-Tawil, Nazar P Shabila and Tariq S Al-Hadithi

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:37

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Past studies of relationships between alcohol and hip fracture have generally focused on total alcohol consumed and not type of alcohol. Different types of alcohol consist of varying components which may affec...

    Authors: Jessica T Kubo, Marcia L Stefanick, John Robbins, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Mark R Cullen, Matthew Freiberg and Manisha Desai

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:36

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Many medical situations necessitate a stressful period of waiting for potentially threatening test results. The medical waiting period is often associated with negative anticipatory anxiety and rumination abou...

    Authors: Henrietta DL Ockhuijsen, Agnes van den Hoogen, Nickolas S Macklon and Jacky Boivin

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:35

    Content type: Study protocol

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  9. Breast cancer incidence in women increases with age, while survival rates decrease. Studies interpret this result as meaning higher comorbidity, diagnosis at later stages of the disease, and less effective tre...

    Authors: Mehtap Kartal, Sabahat Tezcan and Tulay Canda

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:34

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Low blood levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy D3, 25OHD3) in women have been associated with an increased risk of several diseases. A large part of the population may have suboptimal 25OHD3 levels but high-risk gr...

    Authors: Leila Shirazi, Martin Almquist, Johan Malm, Elisabet Wirfält and Jonas Manjer

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:33

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Heavy menstrual bleeding is an important health problem. Two frequently used therapies are the levonorgestrel intra-uterine system (LNG-IUS) and endometrial ablation. The LNG-IUS can be applied easily by the g...

    Authors: Malou C Herman, Marian J van den Brink, Peggy M Geomini, Hannah S van Meurs, Judith A Huirne, Heleen P Eising, Anne Timmermans, Johanna MA Pijnenborg, Ellen R Klinkert, Sjors F Coppus, Theodoor E Nieboer, Ruby Catshoek, Lucet F van der Voet, Hugo WF van Eijndhoven, Giuseppe CM Graziosi, Sebastiaan Veersema…

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:32

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. Violence against women is a significant health problem and a hidden phenomenon, in Italy that about 31% of the women have been victims of violence once in life. Aims of this study are to describe characteristi...

    Authors: Sara Farchi, Arianna Polo, Simona Asole, Maria Pia Ruggieri and Domenico Di Lallo

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:31

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The current political climate with regards to abortion in the US, along with the economic recession may be affecting women’s reasons for seeking abortion, warranting a new investigation into the reasons why wo...

    Authors: M Antonia Biggs, Heather Gould and Diana Greene Foster

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:29

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Latin America has among the highest rates of intimate partner violence. While there is increasing evidence that intimate partner violence is associated with mental health problems, there is little such researc...

    Authors: Dominique Meekers, Sarah C Pallin and Paul Hutchinson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:28

    Content type: Research article

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  15. HIV prevention efforts have given limited attention to the relational schemas and scripts of adult heterosexual women. These broader schemas and scripts of romantic and other sexual liaisons, partner selection...

    Authors: Eleanor McLellan-Lemal, Lauren Toledo, Christine O’Daniels, Olga Villar-Loubet, Cathy Simpson, Ada A Adimora and Gary Marks

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:27

    Content type: Research article

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  16. This qualitative study sets to fill a gap in knowledge by exploring the health seeking behaviour of rural women living in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). The existing literature on the oPt has so f...

    Authors: Linda Majaj, Majed Nassar and Manuela De Allegri

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:26

    Content type: Research article

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  17. More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victim...

    Authors: Charlene Y Senn, Misha Eliasziw, Paula C Barata, Wilfreda E Thurston, Ian R Newby-Clark, H Lorraine Radtke and Karen L Hobden

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:25

    Content type: Study protocol

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  18. Genetic testing among women for BRCA1/2 mutation can have various psychological effects, such as those focusing on body image. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a generic scale a...

    Authors: Noémie Resseguier, Catherine Noguès, Roch Giorgi and Claire Julian-Reynier

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:24

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Vaginal douching (VD) is a common practice among married women all over the world specially those in the Middle East. It is used for personal hygiene or for other aesthetic reasons in many countries. The curre...

    Authors: Omar M Shaaban, Alaa Eldin A Youssef, Mostafa M Khodry and Sayed A Mostafa

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:23

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common gynecological condition that can affect quality of life (QOL) in women. In Nepal, the prevalence of POP is high, but many affected women are still deprived of treatment....

    Authors: Rolina Dhital, Keiko Otsuka, Krishna C Poudel, Junko Yasuoka, Ganesh Dangal and Masamine Jimba

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:22

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Attendance rates of cervical screening programs can be increased by offering HPV self-sampling to non-attendees. Acceptability, DNA yield, lavage volumes and choice of hrHPV test can influence effectiveness of...

    Authors: Viola MJ Verhoef, Maaike G Dijkstra, Remko P Bosgraaf, Albertus T Hesselink, Willem JG Melchers, Ruud LM Bekkers, Johannes Berkhof and Folkert J van Kemenade

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:21

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Mental health problems are the major cause of disability in poor countries, and women are the individuals most affected. The World Health Organization points out that violence against women is the leading caus...

    Authors: Joviana Avanci, Simone Assis and Raquel Oliveira

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:20

    Content type: Research article

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  23. There are many social and cultural factors affecting the sexual knowledge of adolescents. This study measured the sexual health knowledge level of adolescents and identified its association with role of parent...

    Authors: AlJohara M AlQuaiz, Ambreen Kazi and Maha Al Muneef

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:19

    Content type: Research article

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  24. There is increasing recognition of the need to identify risk factors for poor mental health in pregnancy and following birth. In New South Wales, Australia, health policy mandates psychosocial assessment and d...

    Authors: Mellanie Rollans, Virginia Schmied, Lynn Kemp and Tanya Meade

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:18

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected coup...

    Authors: Karin Ried and Ann Alfred

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:17

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Urinary incontinence (UI) continues to affect millions of women worldwide and those living in resource poor settings seem to be more affected. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of UI an...

    Authors: Vidya Seshan and Joshua Kanaabi Muliira

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:16

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Raloxifene and alendronate are anti-resorptive therapies approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Raloxifene is also indicated to reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer in p...

    Authors: Shonda A Foster, Nianwen Shi, Suellen Curkendall, John Stock, Bong-Chul Chu, Russel Burge, David R Diakun and John H Krege

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:15

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The editors of BMC Women’s Health would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 12 (2012).

    Authors: Emily Crow

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:11

    Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

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  29. Emergency Contraception is not officially available to the public sector in Laos. The potential of emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is well documented in developed countries, but in Laos...

    Authors: Vanphanom Sychareun, Visanou Hansana, Alongkone Phengsavanh and Keokedthong Phongsavan

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:14

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Owing to improved management of HIV and its associated opportunistic infections, many HIV-positive persons of reproductive age are choosing to exercise their right of parenthood. This study explored the knowle...

    Authors: Amos Kankponang Laar

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:13

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Eating competence (EC) has been associated with positive health outcomes such as reduced cardiovascular risk and higher diet quality. This study compared reported physical activity and EC in 512 low-income wom...

    Authors: Barbara Lohse, Kristen Arnold and Patricia Wamboldt

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:12

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psycho...

    Authors: Hiroko Sakai and Kazutomo Ohashi

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:10

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The European CHOICE study was a cross-sectional survey that evaluated women’s combined hormonal contraceptive choices before and after contraceptive counseling in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic and Slovakia,...

    Authors: Christian Egarter, Brigitte Frey Tirri, Johannes Bitzer, Vyacheslav Kaminskyy, Björn J Oddens, Vera Prilepskaya, Arie Yeshaya, Maya Marintcheva-Petrova and Steven Weyers

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:9

    Content type: Research article

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  34. A vast amount of literature describes the incidence of fracture as a risk for recurrent osteoporotic fractures in western and Asian countries. Osteoporosis evaluation and treatment after a low-trauma fracture,...

    Authors: Annie W Kung, Tao Fan, Ling Xu, Wei B Xia, Il Hyung Park, Hak Sun Kim, Siew Pheng Chan, Joon Kiong Lee, Leonard Koh, Yung Kuei Soong, Suppasin Soontrapa, Thawee Songpatanasilp, Thana Turajane, Marc Yates and Shuvayu Sen

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:7

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Lymphedema is a highly prevalent condition in women who have undergone treatment for breast cancer. Lymphedema negatively affects the quality of life. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence...

    Authors: Daniella MF Paiva, Vivian O Rodrigues, Marcelle G Cesca, Pamella V Palma and Isabel CG Leite

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:6

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The burden of cervical cancer is disproportionately high in low-resource settings. With limited implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines on the horizon in the developing world, reliable data on th...

    Authors: Nicholas H Schluterman, Samba O Sow, Cheick B Traore, Kamate Bakarou, Rokiatou Dembelé, Founé Sacko, Patti E Gravitt and J Kathleen Tracy

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:4

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Diagnostic test sets are a valuable research tool that contributes importantly to the validity and reliability of studies that assess agreement in breast pathology. In order to fully understand the strengths a...

    Authors: Natalia V Oster, Patricia A Carney, Kimberly H Allison, Donald L Weaver, Lisa M Reisch, Gary Longton, Tracy Onega, Margaret Pepe, Berta M Geller, Heidi D Nelson, Tyler R Ross, Anna N A Tosteson and Joann G Elmore

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:3

    Content type: Correspondence

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  38. Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) has been identified as the greatest means of HIV infection among children. Adherence to antiretroviral drugs is necessary to prevent drug resistance and MTCT of HIV among HI...

    Authors: Daniel Boateng, Golda Dokuaa Kwapong and Peter Agyei-Baffour

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:2

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the ...

    Authors: Sumiko Oshima, Kengo Kisa, Takayoshi Terashita, Hidenobu Kawabata and Masaji Maezawa

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2013 13:1

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Very little data are available on the natural course or level of disturbance of vasomotor symptoms among middle-aged women. Using readily collected trial data we studied the persistence of vasomotor symptoms a...

    Authors: Elina Hemminki, Elena Regushevskaya, Riitta Luoto and Piret Veerus

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2012 12:44

    Content type: Research article

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  41. There is great variation in experience of menopause in women around the world. The purpose of this study was to review current understanding of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) wom...

    Authors: Emma K Jones, Janelle R Jurgenson, Judith M Katzenellenbogen and Sandra C Thompson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2012 12:43

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Considering the role of women in family and social health and the specific cultural cha...

    Authors: Fatihe Kerman Saravi, Ali Navidian, Shahindokht Navabi Rigi and Ali Montazeri

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2012 12:41

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The findings of the CAPRISA tenofovir studies have raised expectations that soon an approved microbicide would be available. However it is in only a limited number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa that the a...

    Authors: Martha A Abdulai, Frank Baiden, George Adjei, Samuel Afari-Asiedu, Kwame Adjei, Charlotte Tawiah and Sam Newton

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2012 12:40

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Despite statements from national fire service organizations, including the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) and the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC), promoting a diverse work fo...

    Authors: Sara A Jahnke, WS Carlos Poston, C Keith Haddock, Nattinee Jitnarin, Melissa L Hyder and Cheryl Horvath

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2012 12:39

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Frequent reporting of cases of hysterical conversion reaction (HCR) among hospitalized female medical patients in Bangladesh’s public hospital system led us to explore the prevalence of “HCR” diagnoses within ...

    Authors: Emily A Kendall, Rashid Uz Zaman, Ruchira Tabassum Naved, Muhammad Waliur Rahman, Mohammad Abdul Kadir, Shaila Arman, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner and Emily S Gurley

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2012 12:38

    Content type: Research article

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  46. In Canada, there has been a considerable increase in the number of women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Within a stigmatized social context, disclosure of HIV positivity is still a preva...

    Authors: Geneviève Rouleau, José Côté and Chantal Cara

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2012 12:37

    Content type: Research article

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