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  1. The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing ...

    Authors: Bilkis Vissandjee, Marie Desmeules, Zheynuan Cao and Shelly Abdool

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S34

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  2. While women are reported to be more frequent users of health services in Canada, differences in women's and men's health care utilization have not been fully explored. To provide an overview on women's healthc...

    Authors: Arminée Kazanjian, Denise Morettin and Robert Cho

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S33

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  3. This chapter investigates (1) the association between ethnicity and migration, as measured by length of residence in Canada, and two specific self-reported outcomes: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-repo...

    Authors: Bilkis Vissandjee, Marie Desmeules, Zheynuan Cao, Shelly Abdool and Arminée Kazanjian

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S32

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  4. Research has consistently shown that while women generally live longer than men, they report more illness and use of health care services (including medication). In the literature, the reasons for women's elev...

    Authors: Jennifer Payne, Ineke Neutel, Robert Cho and Marie DesMeules

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S29

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  5. Canada's standard of perinatal care ranks among the highest in the world, but there is still room for improvement, both in terms of regional differences in care and global comparisons of approaches to care in ...

    Authors: Beverley Chalmers and Shi Wu Wen

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S28

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  6. The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in developed countries has changed from the early epidemic that affected primarily men who have sex with men, to...

    Authors: Marene Gatali and Chris Archibald

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S27

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  7. The incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is rising in Canada. If these curable infections were prevented and treated, serious long-term sequelae including infertility, and associated t...

    Authors: Thomas Wong, Ameeta Singh, Janice Mann, Lisa Hansen and Sharon McMahon

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S26

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  8. Contraception choices affect the long-term sexual health and fertility of women and men. Data from the 1998 Canadian Contraception Study and the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey were assessed for mea...

    Authors: Sharon McMahon, Lisa Hansen, Janice Mann, Cathy Sevigny, Thomas Wong and Marlene Roache

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S25

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  9. Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour modul...

    Authors: Lisa Hansen, Janice Mann, Sharon McMahon and Thomas Wong

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S24

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  10. The average age of natural menopause in Western societies is estimated to be 51 years; women in Canada can therefore expect to live, on average, a third of their lives in post-menopausal years. During these ye...

    Authors: Angela M Cheung, Ruhee Chaudhry, Moira Kapral, Cynthia Jackevicius and Gail Robinson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S23

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  11. Exposure to violence as children or as adults places a woman at higher risk of poor health outcomes, both physical and psychological. Abused women use more health care services and have poorer social functioni...

    Authors: Marsha M Cohen and Heather Maclean

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S22

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  12. Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine ...

    Authors: Enza Gucciardi, Nalan Celasun, Farah Ahmad and Donna E Stewart

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S21

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  13. Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases exponentially with age from the age of 65. The number of people with dementia will increase significantly over the next three decades as the population ag...

    Authors: Joan Lindsay and Lori Anderson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S20

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  14. Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial ...

    Authors: Donna E Stewart, Enza Gucciardi and Sherry L Grace

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S19

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  15. Arthritis is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in Canada and a leading cause of long-term disability, pain, and increased health care utilization. It is also a far more prevalent condition among wom...

    Authors: Elizabeth M Badley and Naomi M Kasman

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S18

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  16. Chronic pain is a major health problem associated with significant costs to both afflicted individuals and society as a whole. These costs seem to be disproportionately borne by women, who generally have highe...

    Authors: Marta Meana, Robert Cho and Marie DesMeules

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S17

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  17. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic health condition affecting 4.8% of Canadian adults ≥ 20 years of age. The prevalence increases with age. According to the National Diabetes Surveillance System (NDSS) (1998–...

    Authors: Catherine Kelly and Gillian L Booth

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S16

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  18. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely ...

    Authors: Sherry L Grace, Rick Fry, Angela Cheung and Donna E Stewart

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S15

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  19. In Canada, cancers of the endometrium, ovaries, vulva, vagina, placenta and adnexa account for 11% of all malignant neoplasms in women and 81% of all genital cancers. Although the incidence and mortality from ...

    Authors: Eliane Duarte-Franco and Eduardo L Franco

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S14

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  20. Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases of women; it is diagnosed in almost half a million women every year and half as many die from it annually. In Canada and other industrialized countr...

    Authors: Eliane Duarte-Franco and Eduardo L Franco

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S13

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  21. Although lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for Canadian women, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed. About 5400 women are expected to die from this disease in 2003. In 1998, a woman's...

    Authors: Heather Bryant

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S12

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  22. Women are more frequently affected by chronic conditions and disability than men. Although some of these sex differences have been in part attributed to biological susceptibility, social determinants of health...

    Authors: Marie DesMeules, Linda Turner and Robert Cho

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S10

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  23. The sex differences in mortality, life expectancy, and, to a lesser extent, health expectancy, are well recognized in Canada and internationally. However, the factors explaining these differences between women...

    Authors: Marie DesMeules, Douglas Manuel and Robert Cho

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  24. Differences exist in the prevalence and physical health impacts of problem substance use among men and women. These differences are also found in the mental health and trauma events related to substance use, b...

    Authors: Renée A Cormier, Colleen Anne Dell and Nancy Poole

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  25. Smoking among Canadian women is a serious public health issue. Using the 1998–99 National Population Health Survey, this study examined underlying factors contributing to differences in prevalence of smoking a...

    Authors: Susan Kirkland, Lorraine Greaves and Pratima Devichand

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S7

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  26. Overweight and obesity have been recognized as major public health concern in Canada and throughout the world. Lack of physical activity, through its impact on energy balance, has been identified as an importa...

    Authors: Shirley Bryan and Peter Walsh

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  27. Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight ...

    Authors: Marion P Olmsted and Traci McFarlane

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S5

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  28. There are differences in health practices and self-rated health among different socio-demographic groups of women. The relationship between socio-demographic status and a) a range of health behaviours and b) a...

    Authors: Heather Maclean, Keva Glynn, Zhenyuan Cao and Donna Ansara

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S4

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  29. Research on the relationship between women's social roles and mental health has been equivocal. Although a greater number of roles often protect mental health, certain combinations can lead to strain. Our stud...

    Authors: Heather Maclean, Keva Glynn and Donna Ansara

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  30. The discussion of health emphasizes the importance of analyses of social determinants of health. Social determinants permit the targeting of policies towards the social factors that impair or improve health. T...

    Authors: Vivienne Walters

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Report

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  31. Common vaginal infections that manifest in women are usually easily diagnosed. However, Chlamydia infection is often asymptomatic, leading to infertility before it is detected. If it occurs in pregnancy, it co...

    Authors: Saad Ghazal-Aswad, Padmanabhan Badrinath, Nawal Osman, Samar Abdul-Khaliq, Shirley Mc Ilvenny and Islam Sidky

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2004 4:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition with a major impact on health-related quality of life, work productivity and health care utilisation. The cause of the pain is not always obvious as no pathology is se...

    Authors:

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2003 3:6

    Content type: Study protocol

    Published on:

  33. The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this pa...

    Authors: HL Chee, S Rashidah, K Shamsuddin and O Intan

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2003 3:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Ovarian antibodies as detected by indirect immunofluorescence have been used to detect ovarian autoimmunity, but to our knowledge the rate of false positive findings using this method has never been reported.

    Authors: Judy A Novosad, Sophia N Kalantaridou, Zhi-Bin Tong and Lawrence M Nelson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2003 3:2

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. There is little existing research to guide researchers in estimating the minimum number of measurement occasions required to obtain reliable estimates of serum estrogens, progesterone, gonadotropins, sex hormo...

    Authors: Andrew E Williams, Gertraud Maskarinec, Adrian A Franke and Frank Z Stanczyk

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2002 2:13

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Cervical cancer can often be prevented by screening and may be curable if identified and treated in its early stages. However, 80% of new cases occur in less-developed countries where cervical cancer screening...

    Authors: Fidelma O'Mahony, Bob Bailey, Chris Koller, Collette Sheridan, Richard Steventon, Kalyan K Dhar and Richard B Johanson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2002 2:12

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common problem that affects one in five women during the pre-menopausal years. It is frequently managed by family physicians, especially in northern, rural and isolated are...

    Authors: Simone N Vigod and Donna E Stewart

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2002 2:11

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. Canadian hysterectomy rates have declined in recent years. However, hysterectomy rates for discretionary indications, principally abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), remain high in some regions. In northern Ontar...

    Authors: Simone N Vigod and Donna E Stewart

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2002 2:10

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. The aim of this study was first, to investigate whether women starting oral contraceptive (OC) use at a young age and before first birth have an increased risk for breast cancer and second, to report difficult...

    Authors: Elina Hemminki, Tapio Luostarinen, Eero Pukkala, Dan Apter and Timo Hakulinen

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2002 2:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Spontaneous premature ovarian failure presents most commonly with secondary amenorrhea. Young women with the disorder are infertile and experience the symptoms and sequelae of estrogen deficiency. The mechanis...

    Authors: Kyoko Shibanuma, Zhi-Bin Tong, Vien H Vanderhoof, Konstantina Vanevski and Lawrence M Nelson

    Citation: BMC Women's Health 2002 2:8

    Content type: Research article

    Published on: