Impact of episiotomy on pelvic floor disorders and their influence on women's wellness after the sixth month postpartum: a retrospective study
- Serena Bertozzi†1,
- Ambrogio P Londero†2Email author,
- Arrigo Fruscalzo3,
- Lorenza Driul2,
- Cristina Delneri4,
- Angelo Calcagno2,
- Paolo Di Benedetto4 and
- Diego Marchesoni2
© Bertozzi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 23 August 2010
Accepted: 18 April 2011
Published: 18 April 2011
The role of episiotomy as a protective factor against pelvic floor disorders postpartum has been debated for many years, but its routine use has been hitherto discouraged in the literature. Comparisons between restrictive and routine use of episiotomy in existent literature, however, fail to include any consideration relating to quality of life. The aim of this study, therefore, is to state the role of episiotomy in preserving the perineum from damage, in order to prevent the influence of pelvic floor disorders on women's psycho-physical wellness after the sixth month postpartum.
A follow-up telephone interview was performed among 377 primiparous and secondiparous Caucasian women who had a child by spontaneous or operative vaginal delivery in 2006 using a self-created questionnaire and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ).
The mean age at delivery was 35.26 (±4.68) years and episiotomy was performed in 59.2% of women. Multivariate linear regression shows episiotomy associated to higher quality of life after the sixth month postpartum by correlating with inferior values of King's Health Questionnaire (p < 0.05).
Episiotomy appears to be a protective factor for women's wellness. Women who had episiotomy and who experienced perineal symptoms have a better psycho-physical health status in the 12.79 months (±3.3) follow-up.
Keywordsepisiotomy vaginal delivery pelvic floor disorders perineum psycho-physical health
Providing assistance in cases of spontaneous vaginal delivery presents a valuable opportunity to prevent perineal disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI), which, requiring surgical intervention in circa 400,000 women every year in the USA alone, has been compared to a hidden epidemic .
UI prevalence rate in women is estimated at between 10% and 50% depending on age [2–5] - a study involving 1029 women with a mean age of 53 years in our region found a UI prevalence of around 44% . UI in women is often assumed to be attributable to the effects of pregnancy and childbirth. In fact, among pregnant women, UI is a common occurrence compared with other groups of women, with reported prevalence rates ranging between 31% and 60% [7, 8]. However, UI tends to be a self-limited condition postpartum, with persistent postpartum UI prevalence rates cited as variating between 0.7% and 44% [9–11].
In addition to UI, many perineal disorders are commonly associated with vaginal delivery, such as anal incontinence, chronic pelvic pain, other lower urinary tract symptoms and dyspareunia, incidences of which are probably underestimated.
Recent studies underline the importance of a better delivery management [12, 13] in order to prevent perineal damage caused by vaginal delivery and its complications, represented by mother-newborn bonding failure in the short-term and pelvic floor disorders at the long-term follow up.
Episiotomy itself remains controversial since its first use by a Scottish midwife in the 1740s . At the beginning of the 1980s, episiotomy was widely performed, despite no clear demonstration of its efficacy . During the 1980s and the 1990s, episiotomy was found to have more side effects than benefits: increased blood loss, greater postpartum pain and dyspareunia, more difficult and lengthy repair, higher incidence of third to fourth degree tears, and no evident protection of foetal health [16, 17]. Therefore, opinion has shifted, with restrictive episiotomy policies appearing to have a number of benefits as reported in the most recent Cochrane review .
Some authors found an association between episiotomy and more perineal pain and dyspareunia during the early postpartum weeks, even when compared with cases presenting spontaneous tears [19–21]. Perineal trauma during delivery results in perineal pain regardless of whether episiotomy was performed or not, and independent of presence of tear and the methods used to repair it [22, 23]. Fortunately, painless intercourse is generally resumed by 6 weeks postpartum, and the effects of delivery trauma on sexual function generally disappear by 12 months .
In the literature, there are no studies that evaluate the effect of episiotomy on women's quality of life in relation to lower urinary tract symptoms postpartum - most of the studies simply evaluate the presence or absence of such symptoms, commonly urinary incontinence.
In the present study we analyse the maternal, neonatal, and obstetric factors influencing the quality of life of women who vaginally delivered, evaluated by the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) at the 12.79 months (±3.3) postpartum follow-up, and focusing in particular on the role of episiotomy. We investigate both physical and psychological health status, and their corresponding effects on daily life, basing our consideration on the most recent definition of health by the World Health Organisation as the coexistence of physical, psychological and social wellness.
From the women who gave birth in our clinic during 2006, 900 consecutive Caucasian primiparous and secondiparous women were selected for interview. The population included both vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections. Data was collected for a study of prevalence of lower urinary tract and perineal symptoms, including sexual function, and quality of life postpartum [25, 26]. The final population, after data collection, totalled 602 women with a 66.9% response rate (602/900) including caesarean sections . For the purposes of this study, the group of 377 women who delivered vaginally was of relevance and was therefore included. Exclusion criteria were parity ≥2, prematurity, multiple pregnancies, lack of ultrasonographic confirmation of the gestational age within the 20th gestational week, non-Caucasian women, and caesarean section. This study was conducted according to the declaration of Helsinki, and after internal review board approval.
The names, addresses and telephone numbers of the 900 consecutive Caucasian primiparous and secondiparous women who formed our population were gathered via interrogation of the Clinic's digital information system. A single operator subsequently contacted the women by telephone. Clinical data relating to hospitalisation period and obstetric and neonatal outcome were consequently collected using paper files held by the Clinic.
The women were asked to complete a self-created questionnaire (29 questions) and the validated Italian version of the KHQ . In specific, the first questionnaire investigates the presence of the following symptoms at the time of the interview: urinary stress; urge and mixed incontinence; increased daytime voiding frequency and urgency; nocturia; voiding symptoms; feeling of incomplete bladder emptying; dyspareunia; chronic pelvic discomfort; faecal incontinence; and recurrent urogenital infections, together with the timing of such disorders in relation to pregnancy.
The KHQ is a condition-specific preference-based measure of health that was originally designed to assess the quality of life of women with UI and LUTS . Its twenty-one items cover eight dimensions of health: urinary symptoms severity; role limitations; physical functioning; social functioning; emotional problems; personal relationships; sleep disturbance; and general health. Higher scores of KHQ indicate greater impairment in quality of life. For the purposes of this study, the following symptoms are classified as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS): UI; urgency; nocturia; increased daytime frequency; voiding symptoms; feeling of incomplete emptying; perineal pain; pelvic pain; bladder pain; dyspareunia.
We defined perineal dysfunctions as permanent when affecting women after the sixth month postpartum; urinary incontinence (UI) and definitions of other pelvic floor symptoms are based on the last International Continence Society standardisation publication .
The following factors were included in our consideration: maternal age; pre-gestational BMI; BMI at term; weight gain during pregnancy; tobacco smoking during pregnancy; constipation; duration of the I and II stages of labour; Kristeller manoeuvre (fundal pressure during the II labour stage to accelerate the foetal expulsion); epidural analgesia; type of delivery (spontaneous or operative); previous surgery (including laparoscopic and laparotomic interventions in the lower quadrants of the abdomen, transvaginal surgery, isteroscopy, and uterine curettage); neonatal age; weight and length at birth; previous UI; permanent UI; dyspareunia; presence of tears (first, second, or third to forth degree perineal-vaginal tears); and whether or not episiotomy was performed.
In our Clinic, episiotomy is always performed mediolaterally. Under normal circumstances, the incision measures a total length of 4 cm and a depth of 3 cm, and is positioned, at an angle of 45°, on the right side of the vulva, within 1 cm of the posterior commissure of the vaginal orifice. This initial incision is never extended, and episiotomy is performed when the tissues are stretched by the baby's head. Moreover episiotomy is always performed when operative vaginal delivery is carried out - vacuum extraction being the sole choice of method for such interventions in our clinic.
Interrupted sutures are used to repair the perineal muscles. To close the skin, interrupted Donati stitch or subcuticular stitching is used, whilst the vagina is repaired using either continuous or interrupted sutures, the method employed in both the latter being at the discretion of the individual suture operator. In our University Clinic, due to a generally uniform approach to suturing, the skin is invariably closed using interrupted Donati stitching and the vagina by continuous suture. In all of the analysed cases, polyglactin suture was used for short-term wound support (7 to 10 days).
The collected data was analysed using bivariate and multivariate linear regression. In addition, bivariate analyses were carried out in order to evaluate the statistical association between variable pairs, with the KHQ score as the dependent variable. The independent or explanatory variables were either continuous (returning a fixed value) or dichotomous (returning either a positive or zero value depending on whether the respondent reported presence or absence of a specific trait).
Each linear regression model was assigned a coefficient and a 95% confidence interval, as calculated by means of an F test for the null hypothesis that the slope of the regression line is zero. A multivariate linear regression was, additionally, performed for the most relevant parameters. In order to test the continuous variables, we performed a t-test, and the Wilcoxon test where appropriate. Statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. Statistical evaluations were performed using R (a language and environment for statistical computing) Version 2.10.1.
Maternal age (years)
BMI before pregnancy (Kg/m2)
Weight gain during pregnancy (Kg)
Actual BMI (Kg/m2)
N° of previous surgical interventions
0 (0 - 5)**
Previous cesarean section
Number of previous cesarean sections
1 (1 - 2)**
Labour and delivery characteristics
Gestational age at birth (weeks)
First labour stage (min)
Second labour stage (min)
First degree vagino-perineal tears
Second degree vagino-perineal tears
Third-fourth degree vagino-perineal tears
Neonatal weight (g)
Neonatal lenght (cm)
The mean gestational age at delivery was 39 weeks and 4 days (±8 days), mean neonatal weight at birth 3364 gr. (±419) and length 50.95 cm (±2.27). Vaginal delivery was spontaneous in 83.8% of cases and operative in the remainder. Epidural analgesia was performed in 18.2% of cases. Episiotomy was required in 59.4% of cases; 6.6% of women had an intact perineum. Tears were present to the first degree in 20.4% of cases, second degree in 15.9%, and third to fourth degree in 1.3% [table 1].
All cases of third to fourth degree tears and operative delivery are included in the episiotomy subgroup with a prevalence respectively of 2.2% (p 0.063) and 26.3% (p < 0.05). Moreover, there is a lower proportion (29.5%) of secondiparous women in the episiotomy subgroup than in the subgroup of women who did not receive an episiotomy (68.6%) (p < 0.05).
Dyspareunia was reported by 17.2% of women. Among the group of vaginal deliveries, SUI had a prevalence rate of 27.6%, UUI 14.8%, MUI 11.9%, and LUTS 41.4%. Among the women who received an episiotomy, 30.0% were secondiparous - significantly lower than women in the same group with an intact perineum, first degree tears, or second degree tears (68.0%, 64.0%, and 75.0% respectively) (p < 0.05). 21.0% of the secondiparous women reported previous UI. The prevalence of LUTS postpartum is 30.1% in primiparous women, 25.2% in secondiparous women without previous incontinence, and 94.4% in secondiparous women with previous UI. The prevalence rates in the first and second of these groups are comparable, and both are significantly lower than the third group (p < 0.05).
Linear regressions, dependent variable KHQ score
Coefficent (CI 95%)
2.671 (0.484 - 4.857)
1.215 (-1.529 - 3.96)
BMI before pregnancy
0.809 (-1.959 - 3.576)
Weight gain during pregnancy
-0.113 (-2.436 - 2.21)
1.079 (-24.969 - 27.126)
14.742 (-11.377 - 40.862)
19.112 (-1.843 - 40.068)
15.04 (-5.564 - 35.643)
Time before follow up
-0.963 (-4.178 - 2.252)
Previous urinary incontinence
70.252 (37.241 - 103.263)
Labour and delivery characteristics
3.846 (-4.611 - 12.303)
0.023 (-0.001 - 0.048)
2.854 (-2.865 - 8.573)
-25.579 (-53.968 - 2.809)
First labour stage
0.028 (-0.019 - 0.075)
Second labour stage
-0.201 (-0.51 - 0.107)
-8.427 (-33.847 - 16.992)
-13.831 (-41.725 - 14.062)
-28.964 (-49.702 - -8.226)
27.706 (6.857 - 48.555)
Second degree tears
-1.782 (-29.898 - 26.333)
Third and fourth degree tears
90.581 (1.144 - 180.019)
Urinary and pelvic symptoms at follow up
125.693 (107.359 - 144.027)
Stress urinary incontinence
122.044 (102.653 - 141.435)
Urge urinary incontinence
123.418 (97.353 - 149.483)
Mixed urinary incontinence
126.94 (97.953 - 155.928)
29.357 (2.292 - 56.422)
88.764 (69.926 - 107.602)
Multivariate linear regressions, dependent variable KHQ score.
Effect (CI 95%)
0.469 (-1.72 - 2.658)
13.988 (-5.727 - 33.703)
-9.617 (-32.943 - 13.709)
Time before follow up
-1.478 (-4.392 - 1.435)
Previous urinary incontinence
25.945 (-9.373 - 61.263)
Labour and delivery characteristics
0.015 (-0.008 - 0.038)
-22.662 (-51.039 - 5.715)
-36.146 (-59.077 - -13.216)
Second degree tears
-22.495 (-51.54 - 6.55)
Third and fourth degree tears
38.257 (-52.405 - 128.919)
Urinary and pelvic symptoms at follow up
81.947 (60.934 - 102.96)
Differences between subgroup with episiotomy and the subgroup without in patiens who suffers LUTS at the time of follow up.
General health perceptions
Urinary symptoms severity
Pelvic floor disorders are a highly common condition in the immediate postpartum: their prevalence is estimated at about 18.4% in primiparous women and 24.6% in secondiparas . They tend to remit after the sixth month following delivery, although in a considerable number of cases they do persist, and the vaginal delivery management appears to offer an opportunity to reduce their morbidity . Amongst our population, pelvic floor disorders are present at around one year postpartum in 40% of all cases, and have a substantial effect on the psycho-physical health of women; yet the majority of cases remain untreated and in reality only 4.49% of our population has been referred to a pelvi-perineal rehabilitation treatment .
Our study provides evidence that episiotomy is associated with significantly lower KHQ scores at the time of follow-up. As shown in table 4 the KHQ score for patients with LUTS is significantly lower when an episiotomy is performed (p < 0.05).
The data in our study, as in the literature, suggests that some women are predisposed to develop pelvic floor disorders during pregnancy and postpartum . In specific, secondiparous women with previous UI are more likely to develop LUTS after the second delivery than secondiparous women without previous UI. In addition to the maternal predisposing factors, many obstetric factors play a part in determining the severity of perineal damage where it continues to affect the quality of life at a 12.79 month (±3.3) postpartum follow-up: in particular, the presence of third to fourth degree tears at delivery, and the onset of UI and dyspareunia.
Likewise, it has been proposed that certain factors offer protection against pelvic floor disorders. In particular, the role of episiotomy is widely debated, but its routine use has been thus far discouraged. In our opinion, and in contrast to the current literature, episiotomy could serve as a protective factor for pelvic floor disorders when considered in terms of quality of life, since women who received an episiotomy and experienced perineal symptoms in the early postpartum have a better psycho-physical health status at the mid-term follow-up.
In a recent Cochrane Collaboration review, which, analysing a population of 5541 women, compared restrictive use of episiotomy with routine use during vaginal birth, a restrictive episiotomy policy results in less severe perineal trauma, less suturing, fewer healing complications but also more anterior perineal trauma. The same review notes no differences between policy in relation to urinary incontinence or pain measures . The majority of studies that we analysed carried out a limited follow-up and failed entirely to evaluate quality of life. It is our considered opinion that both factors form a key part of any investigation that seeks to assess the impact of perineal trauma, to clarify the role of episiotomy in relation to pelvic function disorders, and to evaluate the consequences of such symptoms on women's quality of life.
In addition to the above, there is a strong case that the safety and efficacy of episiotomy is related closely to the methods employed in performing the surgery. Midline episiotomy allows for a better wound healing with an improved appearance of the scar and a better future sexual function. On the other hand, it risks being extended backwards, causing anal sphincter injury, additional risk factors for which are instrumental assistance, prolonged II labour stage and occipito-posterior position . In order to reduce the risk of severe perineal trauma, some authors recommend mediolateral episiotomy in order that any extension to the incision does not lacerate the anal sphincter .
In our study, the results of a multivariate linear regression demonstrate that episiotomy is an independent protective factor against higher KHQ scores; in fact, the mean KHQ score is significantly lower in the episiotomy subgroup than in the subgroup with no episiotomy. The differences in KHQ score in patients complaining of LUTS relate mainly to the categories of urinary symptoms severity, personal relationships, the role and physical limitations (p < 0.05), and also social limitations. These results suggest that pelvic symptoms exert a notable influence on quality of life in the subgroup of women who did not receive an episiotomy.
Whilst not statistically significant, it is interesting to note that Figure 2 shows a lower incidence of SUI, UUI, and MUI in the episiotomy subgroup. Symptoms of urge are, in particular, notably more prevalent amongst women who did not receive episiotomy (p n.s.), which could be due to the higher rate of perineal trauma observed in the restrictive episiotomy policies . Although this cannot be proved statistically, we are of the belief that the higher likelihood of such trauma could be an explanation for the higher KHQ score at the mid-term follow-up for women who did not receive an episiotomy and who suffer from LUTS.
Postpartum dyspareunia was found to be unrelated to episiotomy at the mid-term follow-up , and Figure 2 shows the rate of dyspareunia in the episiotomy subgroup as being not significantly higher than that of the subgroup with no episiotomy.
The weakness of our study is its retrospective organisation. One of the biases to consider is the inconsistency in the time between delivery and our follow-up - all phone calls were carried out during a short period of time, meaning follow-up times fluctuated greatly between individuals. In reality, an assessment of this bias by multivariate logistic regression analysis concludes that it has no influence on results. The strengths of our study lie in its methodology, employing a global psycho-physical investigation to evaluate women's health, and assessing results at the mid to long term follow-up.
On the basis of our results, we propose that, when carrying out randomised clinical trials to compare routine versus conservative episiotomy policies, any conclusions should be considered in the context of quality of health. Moving forward, it is important to standardise the classification of restrictive episiotomy policy. Defining precise indications would overcome the varying interpretations which are currently evident, where rates of episiotomy in conservative policy groups can range from as low as 7.6% up to 80% . A more complete understanding of the factors leading to perineal damage during delivery would enable the definition of a higher risk population, thus allowing a meaningful classification to be proposed. Finally, a point of key importance is standardisation of episiotomy techniques. Such standards would not only enable comparisons between studies, but also maintain consistency between delivery managements.
In conclusion, our study reports an association between episiotomy and a low KHQ score, showing that those women who received an episiotomy and who present LUTS at the 12.79 months (±3.3) follow-up postpartum have a higher quality of life.
King's Health Questionnaire
Stress Urinary Incontinence
Urge Urinary Incontinence
Mixed Urinary Incontinence
Low Urinary Tract Symptoms.
We are grateful to Eilidh P. J. McIntosh for her suggestions on the style and grammatical correctness of our English.
- DeLancey JOL: The hidden epidemic of pelvic floor dysfunction: achievable goals for improved prevention and treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005, 192 (5): 1488-1495. 10.1016/j.ajog.2005.02.028.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thüroff JW: Epidemiology of bladder control problems. Curr Opin Urol. 1999, 9 (4): 283-284. 10.1097/00042307-199907000-00001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Payne CK: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and evaluation of urinary incontinence and overactive bladder. Urology. 1998, 51 (2A Suppl): 3-10. 10.1016/S0090-4295(98)90001-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thom D: Variation in estimates of urinary incontinence prevalence in the community: effects of differences in definition, population characteristics, and study type. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998, 46 (4): 473-480.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thomas TM, Plymat KR, Blannin J, Meade TW: Prevalence of urinary incontinence. Br Med J. 1980, 281 (6250): 1243-1245. 10.1136/bmj.281.6250.1243.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Di Benedetto P: Riabilitazione Uro-ginecologica. Edizioni Minerva Medica. 2004Google Scholar
- Burgio KL, Locher JL, Zyczynski H, Hardin JM, Singh K: Urinary incontinence during pregnancy in a racially mixed sample: characteristics and predisposing factors. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 1996, 7 (2): 69-73. 10.1007/BF01902375.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mellier G, Delille MA: [Urinary disorders during pregnancy and post-partum]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet. 1990, 85 (10): 525-528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Borello-France D, Burgio KL, Richter HE, Zyczynski H, Fitzgerald MP, Whitehead W, Fine P, Nygaard I, Handa VL, Visco AG, Weber AM, Brown MB, Pelvic Floor Disorders Network: Fecal and urinary incontinence in primiparous women. Obstet Gynecol. 2006, 108 (4): 863-872. 10.1097/01.AOG.0000232504.32589.3b.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meyer S, Schreyer A, Grandi PD, Hohlfeld P: The effects of birth on urinary continence mechanisms and other pelvic-floor characteristics. Obstet Gynecol. 1998, 92 (4 Pt 1): 613-618. 10.1016/S0029-7844(98)00248-8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mørkved S, Bø K: Prevalence and treatment of post partum urinary incontinence. Norsk Epidemiologi. 1997, 7 (1): 123-127.Google Scholar
- Hals E, Oian P, Pirhonen T, Gissler M, Hjelle S, Nilsen EB, Severinsen AM, Solsletten C: Hartgill T, Pirhonen J. A multicenter interventional program to reduce the incidence of anal sphincter tears. Obstet Gynecol. 2010, 116 (4): 901-908. 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181eda77a.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Laine K, Pirhonen T, Rolland R, Pirhonen J: Decreasing the incidence of anal sphincter tears during delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2008, 111 (5): 1053-1057. 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31816c4402.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Longo L: A Treatise of Midwifry, in Three Parts (Fielding Ould). Classic Pages In Obstetrics And Gynecology. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1995, 172 (4): 1317-1319. 10.1016/0002-9378(95)91500-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thacker SB, Banta HD: Benefits and risks of episiotomy: an interpretative review of the English language literature, 1860-1980. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1983, 38 (6): 322-338. 10.1097/00006254-198306000-00003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Myers-Helfgott MG, Helfgott AW: Routine use of episiotomy in modern obstetrics. Should it be performed?. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 1999, 26 (2): 305-325. 10.1016/S0889-8545(05)70077-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Woolley RJ: Benefits and risks of episiotomy: a review of the English-language literature since 1980. Part II. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1995, 50 (11): 821-835. 10.1097/00006254-199511000-00021.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carroli G, Mignini L: Episiotomy for vaginal birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009, CD000081-1
- Andrews V, Thakar R, Sultan AH, Jones PW: Evaluation of postpartum perineal pain and dyspareunia-a prospective study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008, 137 (2): 152-156. 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2007.06.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Langer B, Minetti A: [Immediate and long term complications of episiotomy]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2006, 35 (1 Suppl): 1S59-1S67.Google Scholar
- Klein MC, Gauthier RJ, Robbins JM, Kaczorowski J, Jorgensen SH, Franco ED, Johnson B, Waghorn K, Gelfand MM, Guralnick MS: Relationship of episiotomy to perineal trauma and morbidity, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic floor relaxation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1994, 171 (3): 591-598.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fleming VEM, Hagen S, Niven C: Does perineal suturing make a difference? The SUNS trial. BJOG. 2003, 110 (7): 684-689. 10.1046/j.1471-0528.2003.02353.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murphy PA, Feinland JB: Perineal outcomes in a home birth setting. Birth. 1998, 25 (4): 226-234. 10.1046/j.1523-536X.1998.00226.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Connolly A, Thorp J, Pahel L: Effects of pregnancy and childbirth on postpartum sexual function: a longitudinal prospective study. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005, 16 (4): 263-267. 10.1007/s00192-005-1293-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Driul L, Delneri C, Bertozzi S, Londero AP, Petrovec MM, Di Benedetto P, Marchesoni D: [Prevalence of urinary incontinence and pelviperineal rehabilitation during the postpartum in a cohort of primipara and secondipara patients]. Minerva Ginecol. 2009, 61 (2): 89-95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bertozzi S, Londero AP, Fruscalzo A, Driul L, Marchesoni D: Prevalence and Risk Factors for Dyspareunia and Unsatisfying Sexual Relationships in a Cohort of Primiparous and Secondiparous Women After 12 Months Postpartum. International Journal of Sexual Health. 2010, 22 (1): 47-53. 10.1080/19317610903408130.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kelleher CJ, Cardozo LD, Khullar V, Salvatore S: A new questionnaire to assess the quality of life of urinary incontinent women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1997, 104 (12): 1374-1379. 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1997.tb11006.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U, Kerrebroeck PV, Victor A, Wein A, Standardisation Sub-Committee of the International Continence Society: The standardisation of terminology in lower urinary tract function: report from the standardisation sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Urology. 2003, 61 (1): 37-49. 10.1016/S0090-4295(02)02243-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nygaard I, Barber MD, Burgio KL, Kenton K, Meikle S, Schaffer J, Spino C, Whitehead WE, Wu J, Brody DJ, for the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network: Prevalence of Symptomatic Pelvic Floor Disorders in US Women. JAMA. 2008, 300: 1311-1316. 10.1001/jama.300.11.1311.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rortveit G, Daltveit AK, Hannestad YS, Hunskaar S, Study NE: Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section. N Engl J Med. 2003, 348 (10): 900-907. 10.1056/NEJMoa021788.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Herlihy C: Obstetric perineal injury: risk factors and strategies for prevention. Semin Perinatol. 2003, 27 (1): 13-19. 10.1053/sper.2003.50001.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shiono P, Klebanoff MA, Carey JC: Midline episiotomies: more harm than good?. Obstet Gynecol. 1990, 75 (5): 765-770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6874/11/12/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.