Diagnosis, treatment characteristics, and survival of women with breast cancer aged 65 and above: a hospital-based retrospective study
© Kartal et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 18 March 2013
Accepted: 26 August 2013
Published: 28 August 2013
Breast cancer incidence in women increases with age, while survival rates decrease. Studies interpret this result as meaning higher comorbidity, diagnosis at later stages of the disease, and less effective treatment in the elderly. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnosis and treatment characteristics of breast cancer and their effect on the survival of women aged 65 and above.
The data within the files of 1064 women with breast cancer, who were followed-up in Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between 2000 and 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. The survival probabilities at years 1 and 5 were calculated by life table analysis. The Kaplan-Meier test was used for calculating mean survival time, and the differences between groups were evaluated by log-rank test. The backward elimination method was used for multivariate analysis, and a −2 log-likelihood ratio was used for comparison of different models.
Of the patients, 25.3% were aged 65 and above at the time of the diagnosis. Patients in this group had more comorbidities and were more likely to be diagnosed at advanced stages than younger patients. Additionally, they had lower rates of surgical treatment, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. One and 5-year survival probabilities among age groups were 96.1% and 84.5%, respectively, for <65 years, 93.5% and 84.8%, respectively, for 65–69, 98.7% and 84.0%, respectively, for 70–74, and 85.5% and 59.6%, respectively, for 75 years and above. In the multivariate model, age, clinical stage, and comorbidity were found to be negatively associated with the survival rate.
The survival of women with breast cancer aged 65 and above was affected negatively by age at diagnosis, clinical stage, and the presence of comorbidity. Early diagnosis also is very important for elderly women. Additionally, because of higher comorbidity, their evaluation and treatment should be planned by an interdisciplinary team.
KeywordsAged Women Breast neoplasms Survival
It is known that breast cancer incidence is rather low before the age of 30 (25 in 100,000) and demonstrates a linear increase through the age of 80, where it reaches a plateau (around 500 in 100,000). Age is the most important risk factor in breast cancer occurrence after gender. It is observed that the relative risk for breast cancer increases by 5.8 times in women aged 65 and above compared with women below age 65 . Projections by the United Nations have shown that breast cancer incidence is increasing rather rapidly among women aged 50 and above . In Turkey, the prevalence of breast cancer based on records of women varies between 21.4 and 45.6 per 100,000, placing this disease at the top in terms of frequency of occurrence . It was seen that among 11,208 women with breast cancer registered to 13 breast centers in eight provinces, 40.7% were between 51 and 70 years of age and 8.2% were aged 70 and above .
It is known that the survival of women with breast cancer diagnosed at later ages is worse than that of younger women. In relation to this, cardiovascular diseases, pre-existing cancer, diabetes mellitus and dementia are mentioned among those diseases that most frequently accompany breast cancer in the elderly. It has also been pointed out that these diseases increase the risk of death [5–7]. The reasons why survival is lower in the elderly while breast cancer in this age group displays less aggressive tumor characteristics compared with the young have been examined. Among the reported reasons are that the diagnosis occurs in later stages and that the elderly receive less surgical treatment, are insufficiently treated, and receive less radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery and chemotherapy [7–11]. The fact that patients from older age groups do not participate in many randomized controlled studies that assess the effectiveness of chemotherapies has meant that the most appropriate treatment for the elderly is still being discussed .
When the survival probabilities of women were assessed by age, it was seen that all of the women aged 65 years and above who were diagnosed in stage 0 and 1 were alive at the end of 5 years, while their survival was between 83.9% and 87.8% in stage 2, 41.5% and 57.8% in stage 3, and 14.8% and 20.3% in stage 4 . Among the factors that influence the survival of patients with breast cancer, histological grade and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI), particularly for those with negative lymph node, are significant apart from clinical staging [14–17].
In light of previous studies, the aim of this study was to determine certain diagnostic and treatment characteristics of women with breast cancer aged 65 and above, and compare their overall survival time, survival probabilities, and factors that might influence their survival with women younger than 65 years of age.
The study included 1064 female patients who were followed up with a breast cancer diagnosis and/or treatment in Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital between January 1st, 2000 and December 31st, 2006. The data on the patients were obtained by examining the patient files, hospital information systems and pathological reports retrospectively. The study was completed after the final monitoring status of the patients determined on December 31st, 2011. Approval was obtained from Dokuz Eylul University Medical Faculty Hospital Ethics Committee.
Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the associations of age, comorbidity, clinical stage, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, recurrence and metastasis in the follow-up period with mortality. Survival status was censored at the date of last in-person contact noted patient files, hospital information systems or December 31st, 2011. The duration from diagnosis to death was accepted as overall survival time. The ages of the patients were given as <65, 65–69, 70–74, ≥75 years. Diseases included in comorbid conditions were cardiovascular diseases, pre-existing cancer, diabetes mellitus as they are the diseases that most frequently accompany breast cancer in the elderly.
Categorical variables were presented with frequency and percentage distributions, while continuous variables were given with mean and standard deviation values.
The 5-year survival probabilities were calculated by life table analysis. The mean survival times were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier test, and the differences between groups were evaluated by the log-rank test. The prognostic values of all related variables were first assessed in univariate analyses. Then the variables that had significant association with the outcome were included in a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model using the backward elimination method, with −2 log-likelihood ratio values taken into consideration for comparison of different models. The proportional hazards assumption was checked with a log minus log plot for each variable in the model.
The data were analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 program. All reported p values are two-tailed and p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant.
Descriptive characteristics of women with breast cancer
Age at the time of diagnosis (n=1036)
Year of diagnosis (n=1036)
Invasive ductal ca
Invasive lobular ca
Histologic grade (n=745)
Lymphovascular invasion (n=849)
Some characteristics of women with breast cancer according to their age at the time of diagnosis
Age groups n (%)
Histologic grade (n=740)
Lenfovascular invasion (n=845)
Hormonal therapy (n=697)
Survival rates of women with breast cancer according to their age and stage at the time of diagnosis
5 year survival*
Cox-regression models showing factors affecting the survival of women with breast cancer
−2 log likelihood ratio
The number of women with breast cancer increases with increase in life span and increase in elderly population, which in turn results in a higher increase in the number of elderly women with cancer. Breast cancer particularly affects elderly women in developed countries . A multicentre study including 11,208 breast cancer patients from June 2005 until February 2008 showed that 8.2% were aged above 70 years, while in this study, patients aged above 65 years constituted 25.0% of all the patients . The mean age of our patients above 65 years was 71.9 years, while another single-centered study including breast cancer patients aged above 65 years found the mean age of an equivalent group to be 72.7 years .
Co-morbid diseases accompanying breast cancer occur more frequently in elderly patients. It is known that in the elderly without any comorbid diseases, the disease displays a relatively good prognosis, whereas in those with comorbid diseases, it has rather a poor one. It was found in one study that comorbid disease increases the hazard ratio by 1.3 times independent of age, stage and treatment [6, 8]. In our study, 34.2-44.4% of women aged ≥65 years have at least one disease accompanying breast cancer, while only 11.9% of those aged ≤65 years have at least one co-morbid disease. In the multivariate analysis, co-morbid disease was found to increase the hazard ratio by 2.3 times.
Impairments in organ functions, which occur as a result of increased age as well as co-morbid diseases in the elderly, might prevent the formulation of a management plan so that optimum treatment can be achieved. As a consequence, elderly patients cannot be treated in an aggressive way though they are diagnosed at later stages than younger patients [9, 19, 20]. When assessed from the viewpoint of surgical treatment, it has been reported that a more limited surgical treatment is administered in the elderly and that this situation is much more apparent in patients aged ≥80 years . It has been shown that breast-conserving surgery is performed less often and that this situation continues even after recovery from the co-morbid disease is achieved [6–8]. The situation is similar with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. While in various studies patients aged ≥70 and ≥80 years are emphasized, the consensus is that the patients in this age group receive less chemotherapy and radiotherapy but more hormonal therapy [6, 7, 19, 20].
Even though it is known that patients are diagnosed later with more advanced age, it has been shown that this situation is also true for patients over 70. While patients diagnosed at stage 4 constitute 3.7% of people aged <65 years, they constitute 8.5% of the age group 80–84 [20, 21]. Similarly, we have also found in our study that women aged ≥75 years could not benefit from improved staging methods and therapies. They were diagnosed at later stages which can be due to the gab in the screening programs or the ignorance of the disease and rejection of its hard treatment process by the elderly as these can easily affect their quality of life. They received less surgical treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with patients in other age groups. This result might indicate that clinicians are caught between the short-term damage of special interventions in breast cancer and the death of patients due to other factors. Moreover, some studies indicate that breast cancer progresses less aggressively in the elderly and thus the usual treatment approaches are not required. However, the knowledge on this issue is limited and further research is needed [9, 18].
In the EUROCARE-3 study, the survival probabilities of women at 5 years were 76% for ages 65–74 years and 69% for ages above 75 years . In SEER records, on the other hand, survival at 5 years was 89.2% for women aged ≤65 years, 90.4% for ages 65–74 and 86.8% for ages above 75 years . In a study conducted in Turkey, survival at 5 years for women aged ≥65 years was 62%. In the same study, stage and lymph node involvement were reported to be the most important factors affecting survival . In our study, it was observed that survival probabilities at 5 years decrease with increased age, to 59.6% for ages above 75 years. When age and clinical stage, which affect the survival rate of patients with breast cancer, were evaluated together, the age of 75 appears to be a breaking point with markedly decreased survival rate.
In studies that assess the effect of the increasing inadequacies and deficiencies in treatment due to age on patient survival, different results were obtained; nevertheless, it has been shown that radiotherapy increased the overall and disease-free survival while this influence could not be confirmed for surgical treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy [7, 10]. In the modeling made for this study, it can also be seen that the presence of co-morbid disease in addition to age and clinical stage influenced total survival significantly, whereas surgical treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy did not have any significant influence on overall survival.
The most important limitation of our study is that the data were collected retrospectively from existing patient files, which brings the limitations of recorded patient information, including certain shortcomings and possible mistakes.
In summary, women aged ≥65 years were diagnosed with later stages of breast cancer. The co-morbid diseases of these patients might limit physician choices of treatment. Increased age, clinical stage and co-morbid diseases had a negative impact on survival. The early diagnosis of breast cancer is as important for the elderly as for the young and it will be essential to re-evaluate the upper age limit defined in national breast cancer screening programs. Furthermore, planning the post-diagnosis assessment and treatment of the functional losses and co-morbid diseases occurring with aging with an interdisciplinary team are important for the survival of patients.
- Singletary SE: Rating the risk factors for breast cancer. Ann Surg. 2003, 237: 474-482.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- ESHRE Capri Workshop Group: Hormones and breast cancer. Hum Reprod Update. 2004, 10: 281-293.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Eser S, Yakut C, Özdemir R, Karakılınç H, Özalan S, Marshall SF, Karaoğlanoğlu O, Anbarcıoğlu Z, Üçüncü N, Akın Ü, Özen E, Özgül N, Anton-Culver H, Tuncer M: Cancer incidence rates in Turkey in 2006: a detailed registry based estimation. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010, 11 (Suppl6): 1731-1739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Özmen V: Breast cancer in the world and Turkey. J Breast Health. 2008, 4: 7-12.Google Scholar
- Louwman WJ, Janssen-Heijnen ML, Houterman S, Voogd AC, van der Sangen MJ, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Coebergh JW: Less extensive treatment and inferior prognosis for breast cancer patient with comorbidity: a population-based study. Eur J Cancer. 2005, 41 (Suppl 5): 779-785.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hancke K, Denkinger MD, König JKurzeder C, Wöckel A, Herr D, Blettner M, Kreienberg R: Standard treatment of female patients with breast cancer decreases substantially for women aged 70 years and older: a German clinical cohort study. Ann Oncol. 2010, 21 (Suppl 4): 748-753.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lavelle K, Downing A, Thomas J, Lawrence G, Forman D, Oliver SE: Are lower rates of surgery amongst older women with breast cancer in the UK explained by co-morbidity?. Br J Cancer. 2012, 107 (Suppl 7): 1175-1180.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sanguinetti A, Estevan D, Lucchini R, Calzolari F, d'Ajello M, d'Ajello F, Avenia N: Treatment of elderly breast cancer patients in our breast unit [Abstract]. BMC Geriatr. 2009, 9: A19-10.1186/1471-2318-9-S1-A19.View ArticlePubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Louwman WJ, Vulto JC, Verhoeven RH, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Coebergh JW, Voogd AC: Clinical epidemiology of breast cancer in the elderly. Eur J Cancer. 2007, 43 (Suppl 15): 2242-2252.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van de Water W, Bastiaannet E, Dekkers OM, de Craen AJ, Westendorp RG, Voogd AC, van de Velde CJ, Liefers GJ: Adherence to treatment guidelines and survival in patients with early-stage breast cancer by age at diagnosis. Br J Surg. 2012, 99 (Suppl 6): 813-820.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wishart GC, Greenberg DC, Chou P, Brown CH, Duffy S, Purushotham AD: Treatment and survival in breast cancer in the Eastern Region of England. Ann Oncol. 2010, 21 (Suppl 2): 291-296.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scher KS, Hurria A: Under-representation of older adults in cancer registration trials: known problem, little progress. J Clin Oncol. 2012, 30 (Suppl 17): 2036-2038.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ries LAG, Milton PE: Patient and Tumor Characteristics. SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988–2001. Edited by: Gloeckler Ries LA, Young JLJr, Keel GE, Eisner MP, Lin YD, Horner M-JD. 2007, Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, SEER Program, NIH Pub. No. 07–6215, 101-110.Google Scholar
- Arriagada R, Le MG, Dunant A, Tubiana M, Contesso G: Twenty-five years of follow-up in patients with operable breast carcinoma: correlation between clinicopathologic factors and the risk of death in each 5-year period. Cancer. 2006, 106 (Suppl 4): 743-750.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ignatiadis M, Sotiriou C: Understanding the molecular basis of histologic grade. Pathobiology. 2008, 75 (Suppl 2): 104-111.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Soerjomataram I, Louwman MW, Ribot JG, Roukema JA, Coebergh JW: An overview of prognostic factors for long-term survivors of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008, 107: 309-330. 10.1007/s10549-007-9556-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee AH, Pinder SE, Macmillan RD, Mitchell M, Ellis IO, Elston CW, Blamey RW: Prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion in women with lymph node negative invasive breast carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 2006, 42 (Suppl 3): 357-362.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Selim S, Yasemin Benderli C: Yaşlı Meme Kanserli Hastalarda Tümör Özellikleri, Tedavi Yaklaşımları ve Yaşam Süreleri. Turk J Geriatr. 2012, 15 (Suppl 2): 164-170.Google Scholar
- Zappula E, Russo V, Gullota I, Patanè G, Trovato S, Lucifora B, Costa S, Tracia A, Caglià P, Amodeo C: Treatment of breast cancer in elderly patients [Abstract]. BMC Geriatr. 2009, 9: A57-10.1186/1471-2318-9-S1-A57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Laki F, Kirova YM, Savignoni A, Campana F, Levu B, Estève M, Sigal-Zafrani B, Dorval T, Asselain B, Salmon RJ: Management of operable invasive breast cancer in women over the age of 70: long-term results of a large-scale single-institution experience. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010, 17 (Suppl 6): 1530-1538.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bastiaannet E, Liefers GJ, de Craen AJ, Kuppen PJ, van de Water W, Portielje JE, van der Geest LG, Janssen-Heijnen ML, Dekkers OM, van de Velde CJ, Westendorp RG: Breast cancer in elderly compared to younger patients in the Netherlands: stage at diagnosis, treatment and survival in 127,805 unselected patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010, 124 (Suppl 3): 801-807.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sant M, Aareleid T, Berrino F, Bielska Lasota M, Carli PM, Faivre J, Grosclaude P, Hédelin G, Matsuda T, Møller H, Möller T, Verdecchia A, Capocaccia R, Gatta G, Micheli A, Santaquilani M, Roazzi P, Lisi D, EUROCARE Working Group: EUROCARE-3: survival of cancer patients diagnosed 1990-94--results and commentary. Ann Oncol. 2003, 14( (Suppl 5): v61-v118.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- SEER Cancer Statistics Review. Edited by: Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA. 1975, Bethesda, MD: (Vintage 2009 Populations), National Cancer Institute, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/browse_csr.php?section=4&page=sect_04_table.14.html#table 4, –2009
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6874/13/34/prepub