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Table 1 Visit 8 characteristics among postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) categories from the SOF Cohort.

From: Postmenopausal hormones and sleep quality in the elderly: a population based study

Characteristics Current Past Never  
  (N = 424) (N = 1,289) (N = 1,410) P-value*
Age (y), mean +/- SD 82.9 +/- 3.4 83.8 +/- 3.4 83.6 +/- 4.2 0.0002
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean +/- SD 26.2 +/- 4.6 26.6 +/- 4.7 27.7 +/- 5.3 <.0001
Married, n (%) 149 (35.2) 378 (29.4) 299 (21.2) <.0001
African-American, n (%) 34 (8.0) 29 (2.3) 265 (18.8) <.0001
Clinic site, n +/- SD     <.0001
BALTIMORE 70 (16.5) 238 (18.5) 240 (17.0)  
MINNEAPOLIS 131 (30.9) 464 (36.0) 422 (29.9) <.0001
PITTSBURGH 49 (11.6) 280 (21.7) 537 (38.1) <.0001
PORTLAND 174 (41.0) 307 (23.8) 211 (15.0) <.0001
Education (y), mean +/- SD 13.3 +/- 2.6 13.1 +/- 2.6 12.4 +/- 2.8 <.0001
Age at menopause, mean +/- SD 47.7 +/- 6.4 48.5 +/- 5.6 47.9 +/- 5.9 0.0181
Years of menopause, mean +/- SD 34.6 +/- 6.9 35.2 +/- 6.5 34.6 +/- 7.6 0.3451
Any alcohol intake in the past 30 days, n (%) 188 (44.4) 583 (45.3) 514 (36.5) <.0001
Current smoker, n (%) 10 (2.4) 32 (2.5) 43 (3.1) 0.593
Self-reported health status, n (%)     0.4438
   Poor/very poor 7 (1.7) 28 (2.2) 36 (2.6)  
Fair 88 (20.8) 275 (21.4) 330 (23.4) 0.4438
   Good/excellent 328 (77.5) 984 (76.5) 1044 (74.0) 0.4438
Medical condition (0-4) 1.2 +/- 0.9 1.3 +/- 1.0 1.3 +/- 0.9 0.1621
Goldberg Anxiety Scale score, mean +/- SD 1.3 +/- 2.2 1.5 +/- 2.3 1.2 +/- 2.1 0.0007
Geriatric Depression Scale score, mean +/- SD 2.2 +/- 2.3 2.5 +/- 2.6 2.4 +/- 2.7 0.0157
Diagnosed with depression 124 (8.81) 185 (14.35) 64 (15.13) <.0001
MMSE score, mean +/- SD 28.1 +/- 1.7 28.0 +/- 2.0 27.7 +/- 2.1 <.0001
Walks for exercise (yes), n (%) 182 (43.2) 487 (38.3) 479 (34.4) 0.0028
Blocks walked for exercise (daily), mean +/- SD 9.8 +/- 12.2 8.14 +/- 9.9 7.5 +/- 9.7 0.0072
Currently taking antidepressants, n (%) 43 (10.1) 119 (9.2) 104 (7.4) 0.0984
Current sleep medication user, n (%) 1 (0.2) 26 (2.0) 8 (0.6) 0.0003
Prior hysterectomy, n (%) 285 (67.4) 551 (42.9) 409 (29.0) <.0001
  1. * Values of p for continuous data are from a t test for normally distributed data and a Wilcoxon rank sum test for skewed data. Values of p for categorical data are from a chi-squared test test for homogeneity.
  2. SOF = Study of Osteoporotic Fractures; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; SD = standard deviation.