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Table 3 Associations between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and categorized sleep parameters.

From: Postmenopausal hormones and sleep quality in the elderly: a population based study

   HT use
Parameter   Current Past Never
   (N = 424) (N = 1,289) (N = 1,410)
Total sleep time <6 hoursa 1.00 (Ref.) 0.99 (0.85 - 1.15) 1.14 (0.85 - 1.53)
  >8 hoursa 1.00 (Ref.) 1.17 (0.97 - 1.40) 1.02 (0.69 - 1.51)
Sleep efficiency <70%b 1.00 (Ref.) 1.03 (0.87 - 1.21) 1.37 (0.98 - 1.92)
Sleep latency >= 60 minutesc 1.00 (Ref.) 1.06 (0.90 - 1.25) 1.15 (0.82 - 1.60)
Wake after sleep onset >= 90 minutesd 1.00 (Ref.) 1.03 (0.90 - 1.19) 1.37 (1.02 - 1.83)
Long wake episodes >= 8e 1.00 (Ref.) 1.10 (0.95 - 1.27) 1.58 (1.18 - 2.12)
Napping >= 2 hoursf 1.00 (Ref.) 1.13 (0.95 - 1.34) 1.35 (0.94 - 1.92)
  1. a Compared with 6-8 hours
  2. b Compared with ≥ 70%
  3. c Compared with <60 minutes
  4. d Compared with <90 minutes
  5. e Compared with <8 episodes
  6. f Compared with <2 hours
  7. Adjusted for age, clinic site, race, BMI, cognitive function, number of blocks walked for exercise per day, depression, anxiety, education, marital status, age at menopause, alcohol use, prior hysterectomy and medical conditions.