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Table 1 Univariate analysis of risk factors for HSV-2 positivity among pregnant women

From: The prevalence, incidence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among pregnant Zimbabwean women followed up nine months after childbirth

Variable n HSV-2 Positive Prevalence Risk Ratio (PRR) (95% CI) p value
Total 340 167(49.1%)   
Age group     
   <20 yrs 65 25(38.5%) Referent  
   20-24 yrs 135 55(40.7%) 1.1(0.7-1.5) 0.760
   25-29 yrs 76 47(61.8%) 1.6(1.1-2.3) 0.009
   30-34 yrs 47 33(70.2%) 1.8(1.3-2.6) 0.001
   >34 yrs 17 7(41.2%) 1.1(0.6-2.0) 0.836
Marital Status*     
   Single 7 2(28.6%) Referent  
   Married 330 163(49.4%) 1.7(0.5-5.6) 0.362
Polygamy     
   No 303 144(47.5%) Referent  
   Yes 31 21(67.7%) 1.4(1.1-1.9) 0.010
Educational level     
   >Primary 279 131(47.0%) Referent  
   ≤Primary 61 36(59.0%) 1.3(1.0-1.6) 0.066
Age at sexual debut*     
   ≥16 298 145(48.7%) Referent  
   <16 38 20(52.6%) 1.1(0.8-1.5) 0.634
Other sexual partners past 12 months     
   No 329 157(47.7%) Referent  
   Yes 8 7(87.5%) 1.8(1.4-2.4) < 0.001
Ever used contraceptives*     
   No 136 51(37.5%) Referent  
   Yes 203 116(57.1%) 1.5(1.2-2.0) 0.001
Ever used intravaginal herbs*     
   No 283 136(48.1%) Referent  
   Yes 56 31(55.4%) 1.2(0.9-1.5) 0.295
Clinical genital ulcer*     
   No 282 131(46.5%) Referent  
   Yes 8 6(75.0%) 1.6(1.1-2.5) 0.025
Clinical genital warts*     
   No 270 125(46.3%) Referent  
   Yes 25 15(60.0%) 1.3(0.9-1.8) 0.141
Trichomonas vaginalis     
   Negative 296 134(45.3%) Referent  
   Positive 38 30(79.0%) 1.7(1.4-2.1) < 0.001
Yeasts*     
   Absent 204 102(50.0%) Referent  
   Present 130 62(47.7%) 1.0(0.8-1.2) 0.682
HIV-1 serostatus at enrolment     
   Negative 256 92(35.9%) Referent  
   Positive 84 75(89.3%) 2.5(2.1-3.0) < 0.001
  1. *denominator less than 340.