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Table 3 Levels of progenitor cells during the menstrual cycle

From: Smoking decreases the level of circulating CD34+ progenitor cells in young healthy women - a pilot study

   non-smokers (n = 8) Smokers (n = 12)
   M + 3 M + 7 M - 7 M + 3 M + 7 M - 7
CD34+ (%PMBC) 0.08 ± 0.03 0.09 ± 0.03 0.08 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.02* 0.06 ± 0.02* 0.06 ± 0.01*
CD34+/CD133+ (%PMBC) 0.04 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01
EPC-CFU (per106 PBMC) 45.8 ± 12.5 49.3 ± 22 28.2 ± 6.4 21.9 ± 18.8 14.5 ± 21.3 16.4 ± 19.1
estradiol (pmol/l) 188 ± 79 353 ± 119 664 ± 138 138 ± 78 285 ± 150 545 ± 128
progesterone (nmol/l) 2.6 ± 0.6 1.7 ± 0.4 55.3 ± 26.9 4.8 ± 1.6 2.8 ± 0.8 47.1 ± 16.8
  1. *p < 0.05 for comparison of non-smokers vs. smokers; values are mean ± SD; CD34+ = progenitor cells positive for hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34; CD34+/CD133+ = progenitor cells positive for hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34 and CD133; EPC-CFU = endothelial progenitor cells analyzed in vitro by formation of colony forming units