# Table 4 Beliefs, values and participation in breast cancer screening activities (n = 1063)

BSE practice CBE practice Mammogram practice
Variables Yes (%) No (%)   Yes (%) No (%)   Yes (%) No (%)
n = 148 n = 915 P value n = 333 n = 730 P value n = 187 n = 508 P value
Age (years)    χ2(2, N = 1061) = 16.84, p < 0.001*    χ2(2, N = 1061) = 16.15, p < 0.001*    χ2(2, N = 695) = 0.21, p = 0.648
35 – 39 47 (12.9) 318 (87.1) 88 (24.1) 277 (75.9) N/A N/A
40 – 49 75 (18.8) 324 (81.2) 150 (37.6) 249 (62.4) 110 (27.6) 289 (72.4)
50+ 24 (8.1) 273 (91.9) 94 (31.6) 203 (68.4) 77 (26.0) 219 (74.0)
Health status    χ2(1, N = 1061) = 12.76, p < 0.001*    χ2(1, N = 1061) = 5.50, p = 0.019*    χ2(1, N = 694) = 5.72, p = 0.017*
Poor-Fair 18 (7.1) 234 (92.9) 64 (25.4) 188 (74.6) 44 (20.9) 167 (79.1)
Good-Excellent 130 (16.1) 679 (83.9) 269 (33.3) 540 (66.7) 143 (29.6) 340 (70.4)
Can cancer be prevented?    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 16.45, p < 0.001*    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 23.75, p < 0.001*    χ2(1, N = 695) = 13.44, p < 0.001*
No 62 (10.2) 546 (89.8) 154 (25.3) 454 (74.7) 87 (21.6) 315 (78.4)
Yes 86 (18.9) 369 (81.1) 179 (39.3) 276 (60.7) 100 (34.1) 193 (65.9)
Participant would want to know if she had cancer    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.95, p = 0.326    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 2.72, p = 0.099    χ2(1, N = 695) = 4.88, p = 0.027*
No 16 (11.3) 126 (88.7) 36 (25.4) 106 (74.6) 19 (18.1) 86 (81.9)
Yes 132 (14.3) 789 (85.7) 297 (32.2) 624 (67.8) 168 (28.5) 422 (71.5)
Reasons participant believes people get cancer
It’s God’s punishment    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 3.91, p = 0.048*    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 14.05, p < 0.001*    χ2(1, N = 695) = 8.29, p = 0.004*
No 135 (14.8) 779 (85.2) 306 (33.5) 608 (66.5) 173 (28.8) 427 (71.2)
Yes 13 (8.7) 136 (91.3) 27 (18.1) 122 (81.9) 14 (14.7) 81 (85.3)
It’s fate or destiny    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.406, p = 0.524    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.39, p = 0.535    χ2(1, N = 695) = 0.81, p = 0.368
No 6 (17.6) 28 (82.4) 9 (26.5) 25 (73.5) 5 (19.2) 21 (80.8)
Yes 142 (13.8) 887 (86.2) 324 (31.5) 705 (68.5) 182 (27.2) 487 (72.8)
It’s bad luck    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 1.69, p = 0.194    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 4.29, p = 0.038*    χ2(1, N = 695) = 4.07, p = 0.044*
No 138 (14.4) 822 (85.6) 310 (32.3) 650 (67.7) 173 (28.1) 442 (71.9)
Yes 10 (9.7) 93 (90.3) 23 (22.3) 80 (77.7) 14 (17.5) 66 (82.5)
Cancer is contagious    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.06, p = 0.815    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 3.39, p = 0.066    χ2(1, N = 695) = 4.71, p = 0.030*
No 142 (14.0) 874 (86.0) 324 (31.9) 692 (68.1) 185 (27.6) 485 (72.4)
Yes 6 (12.8) 41 (87.2) 9 (19.1) 38 (80.9) 2 (8.0) 23 (92.0)
Cancer is hereditary    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 9.80, p = 0.002*    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 18.24, p < 0.001*    χ2(1, N = 695) = 13.07, p < 0.001*
No 32 (9.2) 317 (90.8) 79 (22.6) 270 (77.4) 49 (19.0) 209 (81.0)
Yes 116 (16.2) 598 (83.8) 254 (35.6) 460 (64.4) 138 (31.6) 299 (68.4)
Unhealthy lifestyle    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.16, p = 0.692    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.35, p = 0.553    χ2(1, N = 695) = 0.92, p = 0.338
No 11 (15.5) 60 (84.5) 20 (28.2) 51 (71.8) 19 (32.2) 40 (67.8)
Yes 137 (13.8) 855 (86.2) 313 (31.6) 679 (68.4) 168 (26.4) 468 (73.6)
Not breastfeeding    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.16, p = 0.204    χ2(1, N = 1063) = 0.64, p = 0.422    χ2(1, N = 695) = 0.28, p = 0.597
No 33 (16.8) 164 (83.2) 57 (28.9) 140 (71.1) 31 (25.0) 93 (75.0)
Yes 115 (13.3) 751 (86.7) 276 (31.9) 590 (68.1) 156 (27.3) 415 (72.7)