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Table 3 Univariate analysis of demographic, clinical history and psychological variables

From: Predictors of regular mammography use among American Indian women in Oklahoma: a cross-sectional study

   Self-reported screening mammography within last 2 years  
   Yes (N = 167) No (N = 86)  
Categorical variables Status n (%) n (%) P-valuea
Age group 40-49 years 71 (43%) 44 (51%)  
50-59 years 63 (38%) 23 (27%) 0.69
60-69 years 30 (18%) 19 (22%)  
Education Less than high school diploma 21 (13%) 15 (18%)  
Graduated high school or complete GED 45 (27%) 23 (27%)  
Some post high school education 71 (43%) 38 (45%) 0.14
College graduate or more 28 (17%) 8 (10%)  
Employment Full-time 80 (48%) 20 (23%)  
Part-time 14 (8%) 9 (11%) 0.0002
Unemployed 73 (44%) 56 (66%)  
How often have breast exam by physician? Every year 109 (66%) 26 (31%) <0.0001
Every 2 years 21 (13%) 9 (11%)
Every 3–5 years 24 (14%) 18 (21%)
Only once/Never 12 (7%) 31 (37%)  
Income 0-$15,000 33 (20%) 32 (40%)  
$15,000-$45,000 70 (43%) 35 (43%) 0.0001
>$45,000 61 (37%) 14 (17%)  
Marital status Living with someone 92 (55%) 39 (45%) 0.14
Living alone 75 (45%) 47 (55%)
Have a primary physician? Yes 156 (93%) 73 (85%) 0.028
Private health insurance Yes 107 (64%) 43 (50%) 0.027
Rural areas Yes 60 (36%) 27 (32%) 0.49
Visit primary physician at least 1/year? Yes 150 (90%) 73 (85%) 0.20
Family history Yes 58 (35%) 12 (14%) 0.0005
Continuous variables Yes No  
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) P-value b
Perceived susceptibility toward breast cancer 2.51 (0.92) 2.46 (0.95) 0.66
Perceived behavior control-facilitator 17.31 (5.72) 13.99 (6.33) <.0001
Perceived behave control-barrier 3.87 (3.55) 7.75 (5.33) <.0001
Self-efficacy- scheduling 4.40 (0.85) 4.21 (0.90) 0.10
Self-efficacy -procrastination 4.01 (1.03) 3.85 (1.01) 0.26
Subjective norms-physician recommendation 22.47 (4.42) 17.34 (7.08) <.0001
Subjective norms-family influence 20.74 (4.99) 17.45 (6.42) <.0001
Strength of cultural affiliation 1.12 (0.74) 1.48 (0.88) 0.0006
Knowledge of mammography screening guidelines 3.04 (1.00) 2.31 (1.26) <.0001
Positive attitude toward mammography 21.77 (4.34) 19.52 (5.43) 0.0004
Negative attitude toward mammography 5.27 (3.34) 7.09 (5.35) 0.0011
Negative attitude-mistrust 6.17 (4.27) 7.89 (5.95) 0.0091
Social modeling 4.22 (0.84) 3.78 (1.15) 0.0006
Native American beliefs (leadership role) 3.92 (0.79) 4.09 (0.88) 0.13
Native American beliefs (traditional role) 1.84 (1.02) 2.30 (1.28) 0.0019
Breast cancer fatalism 11.42 (4.04) 14.4 (5.18) <.0001
  1. aProportions compared between groups using a Chi-square test and a Chi-square test for trend when response options included more than two ordered categories. bMeans compared between groups using an independent sample t-test.