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Table 1 Participant socio-demographic characteristics

From: Intimate partner violence and physical and mental health among women utilizing community health services in Gujarat, India

  Total (N = 167) Ever-married with IPV (n = 83) Ever-married without IPV (n = 84) p-value+
Mean age, years 35.2 (9.2) 34.8 (8.3) 35.9 (10.1) N.S.
Education     N.S.*
 Less than primary (5th grade) 28 (16.8) 12 (14.5) 16 (19.0)  
 Completed primary (5th grade) 22 (13.2) 11 (13.3) 11 (13.1)  
 Less than upper primary (7th grade) 6 (3.6) 4 (4.8) 2 (2.4)  
 Completed upper primary (7th grade) 44 (3.6) 24 (28.9) 20 (23.8)  
 Secondary (8-10th grade) 40 (24.0) 17 (20.5) 23 (27.4)  
 Higher secondary (11-12th grade) 15 (9.0) 8 (9.6) 7 (8.3)  
 College education 2 (1.2) 2 (2.4) 1 (1.2)  
 Graduate education 2 (1.2) 2 (2.4) 0  
Currently employed 104 (62.3) 54 (65.1) 50 (59.5) N.S.
Employment sector     
 Government 8 (4.8) 4 (4.8) 4 (4.8)  
 Private 35 (21.0) 19 (22.9) 16 (19.0)  
Marital status     
 Married 160 (95.8) 81 (97.6) 79 (94.0)  
 Widowed 6 (3.6) 1 (1.2) 5 (6.5)  
 Divorced 1 (0.6) 1 (1.2) 0  
Length of marriage 13.7 (8.6) 13.6 (7.3) 13.8 (9.8) N.S.
Income per person/month in Rupee 2930.0 (4007.7) 3043.7 (4080.1) 2800.0 (3948.7) N.S.
Number of people living in the household 5.1 (1.6) 5.1 (1.7) 5.1 (1.4) N.S.
Religious belief     
 Hindu 153 (91.6) 73 (88.0) 80 (95.2)  
 Muslim 10 (6.0) 7 (8.4) 3 (3.6)  
 Christian 2 (1.2) 2 (2.4) 0  
Caste     
 General (highest) 42 (25.1) 19 (22.9) 23 (27.4) N.S.
 Other Backward Castes 51 (30.5) 28 (33.7) 23 (27.4)  
 Schedule Caste/Schedule Tribe (lowest) 62 (37.1) 30 (36.1) 32 (38.1)  
Living with in-laws (husband’s parents) 92 (55.1) 44 (53.0) 46 (54.8) N.S.
Number of children 1.9 (1.1) 1.9 (1.3) 1.8 (1.0) N.S.
Type of house     
 Pakka (concrete, stone, brick, cement) 115 (68.9) 57 (68.7) 58 (69.0) N.S.
 Kuccha (mud or hay stack or tin roof) 45 (26.9) 22 (26.5) 23 (27.4)  
Living area     
 Urban 58 (34.7) 33 (39.8) 25 (29.8) N.S.
 Rural 106 (63.5) 49 (59.0) 57 (67.9)  
Type of marriage (if a participant had been married)     
 Love marriage 6 (3.6) 4 (4.8) 2 (2.4)  
 Arranged by parents and other relatives 142 (85.0) 64 (77.1) 78 (92.9)  
 Forced by parents and other relatives 13 (7.8) 12 (14.5) 1 (1.2)  
 Through internet 2 (1.2) 1 (1.2) 1 (1.2)  
  1. Note. No. (%) or Mean (SD).
  2. *Compared based on whether the participant completed secondary education or higher.
  3. + p-value denotes significant Chi-Square tests between categorical variables, and independent samples t-tests for continuous variables, comparing between ever-married participants with IPV experience and those without IPV experience.