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Table 2 Association between CES-D/DASS-21 depression with individual behavioral, social, and community characteristics

From: Social, behavioral, and sleep characteristics associated with depression symptoms among undergraduate students at a women’s college: a cross-sectional depression survey, 2012

  Measure of depression
  CES-D Score DASS-21 Score
Participant Characteristic ≥ 16a <16a ≥ 14a < 14a
  N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
  63 (26.3) 177 (73.8) 59 (26.0) 168 (74.0)
Age     
  Mean (STD) 21.4 (5.0) 20.9 (2.7) 21.5 (5.2) 20.9 (2.7)
  Median (IQR) 20.3 (2.2) 20.4 (1.8) 20.2 (2.4) 20.4 (1.8)
  17–18 4 (6.7) 13 (8.0) 4 (7.2) 9 (5.8)
  19–20 34 (56.7) 92 (56.8) 32 (58.2) 87 (56.5)
  21–22 17 (28.3) 49 (30.3) 12 (21.8) 52 (33.8)
  >22 5 (8.3) 8 (4.9) 7 (12.7) 6 (3.9)
Class yearc,d     
  Freshman 22 (34.9) 40 (22.7) 18 (30.5) 32 (19.5)
  Sophomore 15 (23.8) 55 (31.3) 16 (27.1) 52 (31.7)
  Junior 12 (19.0) 51 (29.0) 11(18.6) 50 (30.5)
  Senior 14 (22.2) 30 (17.0) 14 (23.7) 30 (18.3)
Race/ethnicity     
  African American/Black (non-Hispanic) 15 (25.0) 51 (29.7) 13 (23.6) 49 (29.9)
  Asian 5 (8.3) 20 (11.6) 34 (61.8) 81 (49.4)
  Hispanic/Latina 3 (5.0) 7 (4.1) 3 (5.5) 7 (4.3)
  White (non-Hispanic) 35 (58.3) 85 (49.4) 2 (3.6) 19 (11.6)
  Multiracial/ethnic 2 (3.3) 9 (5.2) 3 (5.5) 8 (4.9)
Nation of birthc,d     
  United States 60 (95.2)* 150 (85.2) 56 (94.9) 144 (86.2)
  Other 3 (4.8) 26 (14.8) 3 (5.1) 23 (13.8)
Residencec     
  On-campus 47 (74.6) 148 (83.6) 46 (78.0) 138 (82.1)
  Off-campus 16 (25.4) 29 (16.4) 13 (22.0) 30 (17.9)
GPA     
  3.6-4.0 21 (33.9) 64 (36.6) 14 (24.1) 63 (37.7)
  3.1-3.5 22 (35.5) 75 (42.9) 27 (46.6) 69 (41.3)
  2.6-3.0 12 (19.4) 24 (13.7) 11 (19.0) 22 (13.2)
  2.1-2.5 7 (11.3) 12 (6.9) 6 (10.3) 13 (7.8)
Number of credit hoursd     
  Mean (SD) 15.4 (4.0) 16.1 (3.0) 15.3 (4.1) 16.1 (3.0)
  Median (IQR) 16.0 (2.0) 16.0 (2.0) 16.0 (2.0) 16.0 (2.0)
  1–11 4 (6.8) 5 (3.0) 4 (6.8) 5 (3.0)
  12–16 38 (64.4) 98 (58.7) 40 (67.8) 98 (58.3)
  >16 17 (28.8) 64 (38.3) 15 (25.4) 65 (38.7)
Employmentd     
  On-campus 27 (42.9) 79 (44.9) 21 (35.6) 76 (45.5)
  Off-campus 11 (17.5) 36 (20.5) 9 (15.3) 37 (22.2)
  None 25 (39.7) 61 (35.7) 29 (49.2) 54 (32.3)
Self-reported overall health     
  Excellent/very good/goodc,d 47 (74.6)* 166 (94.9) 44 (77.2)* 157 (93.5)
  Fair/poor 16 (25.4) 9 (5.1) 13 (22.8) 11 (6.5)
BMId     
  Mean (SD) 26.6 (7.8)* 24.1 (6.0) 27.1 (7.7)* 24.0 (5.9)
  Median (IQR) 24.7 (8.4) 20.6 (6.1) 25.3 (9.2) 23.0 (6.0)
  <18.5 5 (7.9) 13 (7.3) 3 (5.1)* 8 (4.9)
  18.5-24.9 29 (46.0) 101 (57.1) 23 (39.0) 99 (60.7)
  >24.9 29 (46.0) 63 (35.6) 33 (55.9) 56 (34.4)
Nightly hours of sleepc,d     
  Mean (SD) 6.0 (1.6)* 6.7 (1.3) 6.0 (1.6)* 6.7 (1.3)
  Median (IQR) 6.0 (2.0) 7.0 (1.0) 6.0 (2.6) 7.0 (1.0)
  <5 12 (19.1)* 17 (9.6) 7 (11.9) * 5 (3.0)
  5–6 32 (50.8) 67 (37.9) 32 (54.2) 69 (41.8)
  >6 19 (30.2) 93 (52.5) 20 (33.9) 91 (55.2)
Sleep qualityc,d     
  Excellent/good/okay 35 (59.3)* 138 (82.6) 35 (59.3)* 140 (83.3)
  Poor/extremely poor 24 (40.7) 29 (17.4) 24 (40.7) 28 (16.7)
Family member with previous mental health diagnosisc,d     
  Depressive or anxiety disorder 9 (20.9)* 38 (27.9) 13 (30.2)* 34 (24.8)
  Both 22 (51.2) 30 (22.1) 21 (48.8) 33 (24.1)
  Neither 12 (27.9) 68 (50.0) 9 (20.9) 70 (51.1)
College loansd     
  Yes 44 (69.8) 113 (63.8) 44 (74.6) 107 (63.7)
  No 19 (30.2) 64 (36.2) 15 (25.4) 61 (36.3)
Major     
  Undeclared 4 (7.0) 7 (4.5) 3 (5.2) 7 (4.5)
  Humanities 11 (19.3) 20 (13.0) 10 (17.2) 22 (14.1)
  Social sciences 21 (36.8) 66 (42.6) 24 (41.4) 63 (40.4)
  Natural sciences 9 (15.8) 40 (25.8) 9 (15.5) 40 (25.6)
  Double major 11 (19.3) 18 (11.6) 11 (19.0) 20 (12.8)
  Dual-degree Nursing 1 (1.8) 4 (2.6) 1 (1.7) 4 (2.6)
Self-reported increase in stress from college     
  Yes 53 (89.8) 138 (83.6) 53 (89.8) 142 (84.5)
  No 6 (10.2) 27 (16.4) 6 (10.2) 26 (15.5)
Frequency of weekly academic stressb     
  Often 44 (74.6)* 72 (43.1) 46 (78.0)* 70 (41.7)
  Not very often 12 (20.3) 80 (47.9) 11(18.6) 82 (48.8)
  Almost never 3 (5.1) 15 (9.0) 2 (3.4) 16 (9.5)
Number of people in social support groupc,d     
  Mean (SD) 5.1 (4.2)* 6.5 (5.3) 4.6 (4.0)* 6.7 (5.2)
  Median (IQR) 4.0 (4.0) 5.0 (5.0) 3.5 (3.5) 5.0 (4.0)
  0–4 30 (54.5) 62 (38.3) 35 (62.5)* 56 (34.6)
  >4 25 (45.5) 100 (61.7) 21 (37.5) 106 (65.4)
Strong social support groupc,d     
  Yes 27 (58.7)* 128 (89.5) 25 (53.2)* 134 (92.4)
  No 19 (41.3) 15 (10.5) 22 (46.8) 11 (7.6)
Relationship statusc     
  Single 42 (68.9) 96 (54.9) 34 (59.6) 92 (55.4)
  Relationship 19 (31.1) 79 (45.1) 23 (40.4) 74 (44.6)
Children     
  Yes 2 (3.2) 6 (3.4) 2 (3.4) 6 (3.6)
  No 61 (96.8) 169 (96.6) 57(96.6) 162(96.4)
Exercise (≥ 1 time per week)c,d     
  Yes 58 (93.5) 174 (98.3) 55 (94.8) 166 (98.8)
  No 4 (6.5) 3 (1.7) 3 (5.2) 2 (1.2)
Previous mental health clinical diagnosis or treatmentc,d     
  Yes 26 (44.1)* 37 (22.4) 29 (49.2)* 36 (21.6)
  No 33 (55.9) 128 (77.6) 30 (50.8) 131 (78.4)
Ever visited campus psychologistd     
  Yes 30 (50.8) 69 (41.3) 23(46.9) 56 (44.1)
  No 29 (49.2) 98 (58.7) 26 (53.1) 71 (55.9)
Perceived stigma of mental health issues at colleged     
  Strongly agree/Agree 15 (26.3) 109 (68.1) 23 (41.1)* 43 (26.7)
  Disagree/Strongly disagree 42 (73.7) 51 (31.9) 33 (58.9) 118 (73.3)
Perceived stress at current college higher than other universities     
  Yes 18 (31.0) 50 (30.3) 19 (32.2) 52 (31.0)
  No 40 (69.0) 115 (69.7) 40 (67.8) 116 (69.0)
  1. *p-value <0.05.
  2. Notes. aMay not sum to N because some participants did not complete this measure.
  3. bNot included in predictive model due to collinearity.
  4. cIncluded in predictive model for CES-D.
  5. dIncluded in predictive model for DASS-21.