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Table 3 Baseline severity of symptoms: incontinent episodes (IE) and urine loss (g) (pad test)

From: Pelvic floor muscle training and adjunctive therapies for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

Study IE/day IE/week Urine loss (g) (pad test)
Aksac (2003)    20 (1 hour)
Arvonen (2001)    25 (SPT, st.b.vl)
Balmforth (2004)    12.2 (SPT, st.b.vl)
Berghmans (1996) 2–3   28 (48 hr pad test)
Bidmead (2002)    10 (SPT)
Bo (1999) 2.0 per 3 days   38.6 (SPT, st.b.vl.); 14.5 (24 hr pad test)
Bo (2000)    45 (SPT, st.b.vl)
Cammu & van Nylen (1998)   14.4 NR
Chen (1999) 5.5   20 (1 hour)
Dumoulin (1995)    74.4 (SD 84.3) (SPT, st.b.vl)
Dumoulin (2004)    PF group: 12.5 g: PF+ abs group: 20 g (SPT, st.b.vl)
Finkenhagen (1998)    NR
Glavind (1996)    10.9 (SPT, st.b.vl)
Hay-Smith (2002) 1.8   3.9 ml (paper towel test)
Johnson (2001) 3.6 (range: 1.86–13)   12.9 (range: 1.76–111.42) (10 hour pad test)
Knight (1998)    14.6 (SPT, st.b.vl)
Miller (1998)    Paper towel test
Morkved (2002)    27.5 (SPT, st.b.vl), 42.2 (48 hr pad test)
Pages (2001)    NR
Parkkinen (2004)    (SPT, st.b.vl)
Pieber (1995)    NR
Sung (2000)    NR
Turkan (2005)    (1) 8.6 (2) 29.1 (3) 236.4) (1 hour pad test)
Wong (2001)   6.3 10.8 (SPT, standardised fluid intake)
  1. SPT = stress pad test; st.b.vl = standardised bladder volume