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Table 12 Female respondents: Associations with domestic physical violence (number of responses, Odds Ratio and 99%confidence interval)

From: Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries

   Botswana Lesotho Malawi Mozambique Namibia Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Overall
   Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence Partner violence
   Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
Reported having multiple partners Yes 75 171 96 267 10 54 36 227 41 102 53 103 82 77 57 113 450 1114
  No 159 755 86 599 164 1278 111 979 189 993 139 518 447 798 184 933 1479 6853
  OR 99% CI 2.08 (1.37–3.16) 2.50 (1.65–3.81) 1.44 (0.58–3.58) 1.40 (0.83–2.37) 2.11 (1.27–3.51) 1.92 (1.17–3.15) 1.90 (1.24–2.93 2.56 1.62–4.03 1.87 (1.60–2.20)
Income gap Yes 123 558 110 502 4 58 19 171 129 524 114 382 357 575 98 516 954 3286
  No 128 538 91 564 171 1340 125 997 101 614 98 412 176 390 153 701 1043 5556
  OR 99% CI 0.93 (0.65–1.33) 1.36 (0.91–2.02) 0.54 (0.14–2.04) 0.89 (0.45–1.73) 1.50 (1.03–2.17) 1.25 (0.84–1.87) 1.38 (1.03–1.84) 0.87 (0.60–1.25) 1.55 (1.36–1.76)
Negative attitudes to sex and violence Yes 32 88 87 359 42 314 45 401 38 115 48 109 165 190 30 95 487 1671
  No 224 1024 120 727 134 1093 103 824 195 1031 172 696 363 762 222 1147 1533 7304
  OR 99% CI 1.66 (0.95–2.91) 1.47 (0.99–2.19) 1.09 (0.67–1.77) 0.90 (0.55–1.46) 1.75 (1.04–2.93) 1.78 (1.09–2.92) 1.82 (1.33–2.50) 1.63 (0.93–2.88) 1.39 (1.29–1.79)
Feels herself to be at risk of AIDS Yes 168 664 104 454 84 486 89 586 110 472 131 380 214 322 124 399 1024 3763
  No 66 385 63 530 89 874 51 563 103 591 68 348 298 614 95 696 833 4601
  OR 99% CI 1.48 (0.98–2.22) 1.93 (1.24–2.99) 1.70 (1.12–2.57) 1.68 (1.04–2.69) 1.34 (0.91–1.97) 1.76 (1.15–2.70) 1.37 (1.02–1.83) 2.28 (1.56–3.33) 1.50 (1.32–1.72)
Negative attitudes to AIDS Yes 8 15 13 84 14 96 10 86 6 21 15 14 46 39 6 28 118 383
  No 249 1098 194 1012 162 1314 138 1139 227 1127 206 799 492 932 246 1218 1914 8639
  OR 99% CI 2.35 (0.77–7.14) 0.81 (0.37–1.78) 1.18 (0.55–2.55) 0.96 (0.39–2.34) 1.42 (0.43–4.72) 4.16 (1.68–10.30) 2.23 (1.27–3.94) 1.06 (0.33–3.43) 1.39 (1.05–1.84)