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Table 3 Comparison of Health Belief Model items among performers and non-performers of BSE (Score range: 1-5)

From: Prediction of breast self-examination in a sample of Iranian women: an application of the Health Belief Model

  Performing BSE
Item Yes (regular/irregular) No (never done) t* p
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
Susceptibility     
1. It is likely that I will get breast cancer 2.63(1.1) 2.45(1.02) 1.24 0.21
2. My chances of getting breast cancer in the next few years are great 2.76(1.03) 2.73(1.05) 0.17 0.86
3. I feel I will get breast cancer sometime during my life 2.41(1.07) 2.43(1.04) -0.17 0.86
Seriousness     
4. The thought of breast cancer scares me 3.86(1.2) 3.81(1.25) 0.29 0.76
5. When I think about breast cancer, my heart beats faster 3.85(1.3) 3.68(1.2) 0.96 0.34
6. I am afraid to think about breast cancer 3.75(1.3) 3.77(1.2) -0.14 0.88
7. Problems I would experience with breast cancer would last a long time 3.41(1.2) 3.33(1.2) 0.43 0.67
8. Breast cancer would threaten a relationship with my husband 3.06(1.4) 3.17(1.2) -0.58 0.56
9. If I had breast cancer my whole life would change 3.64(1.3) 3.63(1.2) 0.06 0.95
Benefit BSE     
10. When I do BSE, I am doing something to take care of myself 4.30(0.9) 4.17(1.01) 0.92 0.35
11. Completing BSE each month may help me find breast lumps early 4.42(0.78) 4.26(0.87) 1.30 0.19
12. Regular BSE decreases the rate of death from breast cancer 4.43(0.75) 4.18(0.96) 2.01 0.04**
13. If I find a lump early through BSE, my treatment for breast cancer may not be as bad 4.23(1.01) 4.04(1.04) 1.35 0.17
Barrier BSE     
14. BSE is embarrassing to me 1.69(0.93) 2.15(1.18) -2.98 0.003**
15. BSE takes too much time 1.65(0.88) 2.08(1.07) -3.03 0.003**
16. It is hard to remember to do breast examination 1.97(1.15) 2.45(1.18) -2.95 0.003**
17. I don't have enough privacy to do breast examination 1.63(0.87) 2.20(1.17) -3.77 <0.001**
18. BSE is not necessary if you have a breast exam by a healthcare provider 2.89(1.5) 2.87(1.3) 0.08 0.93
19. BSE is not necessary if you have a routine mammogram 3.02(1.4) 2.95(1.3) 0.36 0.71
20. My breast too large for me to complete BSE 1.80(0.96) 1.94(0.93) -1.08 0.27
21. I have other problems more important than doing BSE 1.88(1.1) 2.15(1.1) -1.75 0.08
BSE self-efficacy     
22. I know how to perform BSE 3.68(1.1) 3.06(1.2) 3.67 <0.001**
23. I can perform BSE correctly 3.50(1.2) 3.00(1.2) 2.93 0.004**
24. I could find a breast lump by performing BSE 3.73(1.05) 3.14(1.1) 3.72 <0.001**
25. I am able to find a breast lump that is the size of a walnut 3.90(1.2) 3.34(1.2) 3.35 <0.001**
26. I am able to find a breast lump that is the size of a hazelnut 3.57(1.2) 3.05(1.2) 3.11 0.002**
27. I am able to find a breast lump that is the size of a pea 2.75(1.3) 2.68(1.2) 0.34 0.73
28. I am sure of the steps to follow for doing BSE 3.45(1.1) 2.91(1.2) 3.07 0.002**
29. I am able to tell something is wrong with my breast when doing BSE 3.84(1.02) 3.18(1.2) 4.05 <0.001**
30. I am able to tell something is wrong with my breast when I look in the mirror 2.84(1.2) 2.77(1.2) 0.39 0.69
31. I can use the correct part of my fingers when examining my breasts 3.61(1.1) 3.07(1.2) 3.17 0.002**
  1. *t-test **significant