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Table 1 Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for lack of prior cervical cancer screening by selected women’s characteristics, 1,620 women, Thimphu and Lungthenphu, Bhutan

From: Cervical cancer screening program in Thimphu, Bhutan: population coverage and characteristics associated with screening attendance

Variable Total N. (%) of women never screened Odds ratio a 95% confidence interval
All women 1620 661 (40.8)
Recruitment area     
Thimphu 1003 426 (42.5) Ref. cat.  
Lungthenphu 617 235 (38.1) 0.8 0.7 – 1.0
Age groups (yrs)     
25-34 852 407 (47.8) 2.3 1.8 – 3.0
35-44 435 122 (28.0) Ref. cat.  
≥45 333 132 (39.6) 1.7 1.2 – 2.3
Occupation     
Housewife 1051 402 (38.2) Ref. cat.  
Shopkeeper/saleswoman 161 77 (47.8) 1.6 1.1 – 2.3
Manual worker/Farmer 154 81 (52.6) 1.7 1.2 – 2.4
Clerical staff 110 44 (40.0) 1.0 0.6 – 1.5
Teacher/Health worker/Students 131 48 (36.7) 1.0 0.6 – 1.4
Ethnic group     
Scharchop 605 226 (37.4) Ref. cat.  
Ngalop 396 168 (42.4) 1.3 1.0 – 1.7
Lhotsampa 340 156 (45.9) 1.6 1.2 – 2.1
Other 274 106 (38.7) 1.1 0.8 – 1.5
Marital status     
Married 1487 586 (39.4) Ref. cat.  
Single 15 12 (80.0) 4.9 1.3 – 17.9
Widowed/separated 112 57 (50.9) 1.8 1.2 – 2.6
Pregnancies     
0 93 63 (67.7) 1.9 1.2 -3.2
1 267 145 (54.3) Ref. cat.  
2 442 182 (41.2) 0.7 0.5 – 0.9
≥3 809 263 (32.5) 0.6 0.4 – 0.8
χ 1 2 for trend    = 9.8, p = 0.002b  
Contraceptive method     
None 343 194 (56.6) Ref. cat.  
Hormonal 656 261 (39.8) 0.5 0.3 – 0.6
Other 606 196 (32.3) 0.4 0.3 – 0.5
Lifetime sexual partners     
1 1420 568 (40.0) Ref. cat.  
≥2 174 77 (44.2) 1.4 1.0 – 1.9
HPV infection     
Negative 1254 479 (38.2) Ref. cat.  
Positive 366 182 (49.7) 1.5 1.2 – 1.9
  1. Note: Some figures do not add up to the total due to missing values; aAdjusted for age, as appropriate.
  2. bTrend assessed among ever pregnant women only.