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Table 2 Bivariate associations of physical or sexual IPV in the last 12 months with behavioral and socio-demographic characteristics

From: Correlates of intimate partner violence against women during a time of rapid social transition in Rwanda: analysis of the 2005 and 2010 demographic and health surveys

  2005 2010 Source Questionnaire
  N (weighted) % IPV 95 % CI X2 N (weighted) % IPV 95 % CI X2
p-value
p-value
Beliefs and behaviors          
Emotional violence by partner last 12 months     <0.001      Women
  No 1432 19.4 [17.4,21.5]   Not     
  Yes 105 84.7 [76.4,90.5]   available     
Woman beat partner unprovoked last 12 months     <0.001      Women
  No 1535 23.7 [21.6,25.9]   Not     
  Yes 9 82.4 [49.0,95.8]   available     
Woman’s father beat mother     <0.001      Women
  No 1028 20.4 [18.1,23.0]   Not     
  Yes 507 31.5 [27.4,35.8]   available     
Partner consumes alcohol very often     <0.001      Women
  Never or sometimes 1358 19.8 [17.8,21.9]   Not     
  Very often 184 54.3 [46.5,61.8]   available     
Partner believes a man can beat his wife     0.188     0.003 Men
  0 reasons 1196 23.2 [21.0,25.7]   1638 47.9 [45.2,50.5]   
  1+ reasons 347 26.9 [22.2,32.3]   407 56.1 [51.5,60.6]   
Woman believes a man can beat his wife     0.108     <0.001 Women
  0 reasons 828 22.5 [19.8,25.4]   879 43.7 [40.4,47.0]   
  1+ reasons 718 25.9 [22.9,29.2]   1165 54.0 [50.9,57.0]   
Woman involved in her own health decisions     0.134     <0.001 Women
  Partner only, other 654 26.1 [22.8,29.7]   553 56.6 [52.0,61.0]   
  Woman involved 892 22.6 [19.9,25.6]   1494 46.9 [44.4,49.5]   
Woman involved with decisions about her earnings     0.249     <0.001 Women
  Partner only, other 65 32.5 [23.5,43.0]   224 64.8 [58.0,71.1]   
  Woman involved 217 26.1 [20.3,32.8]   1079 48.3 [45.2,51.3]   
  No earnings 913 22.7 [20.0,25.6]   534 45.0 [40.7,49.4]   
  Not working 347 24.8 [20.4,29.7]   206 51.4 [44.9,57.9]   
Partner had sex with non-wife last 12 months     0.552     <0.001 Men
  No 1468 24.0 [21.8,26.2]   1971 48.7 [46.4,51.1]   
  Yes 78 26.7 [18.5,36.8]   75 71.0 [60.9,79.3]   
Woman says it is okay to refuse sex     0.709     0.008 Women
  No 485 24.7 [21.2,28.5]   445 55.4 [50.3,60.3]   
  Yes 1059 23.8 [21.2,26.6]   1600 47.9 [45.4,50.4]   
Woman says it is okay to request use of condom     0.927     0.008 Women
  No 848 24.0 [21.1,27.2]   445 55.4 [50.3,60.3]   
  Yes 695 24.2 [21.1,27.6]   1600 47.9 [45.4,50.4]   
  Socio-demographics          
Woman’s age     0.739     0.091 Women
  15–19 18 18.7 [7.5,39.7]   29 29.9 [17.3,46.4]   
  20–29 620 25.4 [22.3,28.8]   870 48.0 [45.0,51.0]   
  30–39 547 23.4 [20.3,26.7]   737 51.3 [47.6,54.9]   
 40–49 361 23.2 [18.5,28.8]   411 51.0 [45.1,57.0]   
Difference in partner and woman age     0.706     0.638 Women & Men
  Woman older 238 25.4 [20.5,30.9]   360 50.2 [45.2,55.2]   
  Same age, partner 0–4 years older 691 24.8 [21.7,28.3]   945 49.2 [46.0,52.5]   
  Partner 5–9 years older 369 22.0 [18.1,26.4]   477 51.3 [46.6,55.9]   
  Partner 10+ years older 248 23.9 [19.2,29.5]   265 46.5 [40.4,52.6]   
Household wealth     0.516     0.005 Household
  Top 4 quintiles 1229 23.7 [21.5,26.1]   1689 48.2 [45.7,50.7]   
  Bottom quintile 317 25.6 [20.7,31.1]   358 55.8 [50.8,60.6]   
Household residence     0.084     0.037 Household
  Urban 187 19.4 [14.7,25.1]   259 43.4 [37.7,49.4]   
  Rural 1360 24.7 [22.5,27.2]   1788 50.4 [47.9,52.9]   
Polygynous couple     <0.001     <0.001 Women
  No 1388 22.3 [20.2,24.5]   1926 48.2 [45.9,50.5]   
  Yes 156 40.2 [32.7,48.2]   116 70.0 [59.7,78.6]   
Woman’s children     0.040     <0.001 Women
  Has no children 101 14.1 [8.7,22.1]   138 30.8 [23.1,39.7]   
  Has at least one son 1195 24.9 [22.4,27.5]   1558 51.9 [49.2,54.6]   
  Has daughters only 250 24.5 [20.0,29.6]   351 46.4 [41.6,51.2]   
Number of children <15 in household     0.229     0.003 Household
  None 95 16.2 [10.4,24.4]   131 34.2 [27.0,42.2]   
  1 or 2 592 23.7 [20.4,27.4]   881 49.7 [46.5,52.8]   
  3 or 4 611 25.8 [22.5,29.5]   763 51.5 [47.9,55.2]   
  5+ 249 23.7 [18.6,29.7]   272 50.8 [44.3,57.2]   
Number of adults in addition to couple in household     0.087     0.167 Household
  None 1042 26.1 [23.6,28.7]   1343 50.8 [48.3,53.3]   
  1 or 2 393 20.8 [16.4,26.1]   558 48.8 [44.1,53.6]   
  3+ 111 16.8 [9.4,28.3]   146 40.2 [28.9,52.7]   
Partner’s employment     0.628     <0.001 Men
  Employed, for cash 700 25.1 [22.0,28.4]   1630 47.7 [45.1,50.3]   
  Employed, in - kind 202 23.9 [18.9,29.7]   390 58.4 [54.1,62.6]   
  Not working 636 22.9 [19.8,26.4]   25 34.9 [17.4,57.7]   
Partner’s education     <0.001     0.020 Men
  Less than secondary 1376 25.6 [23.3,28.0]   1804 50.6 [48.2,53.1]   
  Secondary or higher 170 12.2 [8.3,17.7]   243 41.4 [34.3,48.8]   
Woman’s employment     0.204     0.002 Women
  Employed, for cash 264 28.3 [23.2,34.1]   1165 52.9 [49.8,55.9]   
  Employed, in - kind 773 23.7 [20.8,26.9]   464 45.1 [40.4,49.8]   
  Not working 507 22.6 [19.2,26.4]   419 45.1 [40.8,49.5]   
Woman’s education     0.002     0.073 Women
  No school 438 22.5 [18.9,26.6]   396 48.3 [43.1,53.5]   
  Primary 988 26.1 [23.5,29.0]   1458 50.8 [48.1,53.5]   
  Secondary or higher 121 13.2 [8.6,19.6]   193 42.1 [35.2,49.2]   
 IPV overalla 1546 24.1 [22.0,26.3]   2047 49.5 [47.2,51.8]   
  1. aCovariate frequencies may not add to total due to missing responses