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Table 1 Characteristics of the case and control groups

From: Major dietary patterns in relation to menstrual pain: a nested case control study

Variables Cases (n = 46) Controls (n = 54) P-valuea
Age (y) (Mean ± SD) 21.89 ± 1.43 21.92 ± 1.83 0.41
Age at menarche (y) (Mean ± SD) 13.43 ± 1.47 13.61 ± 1.43 0.28
Length of menstrual cycle (days) 28.63 ± 1.92 28.44 ± 3.23 0.19
Menstrual cycle regularity, n (%)    0.49
 Yes 46 (46.9) 52 (53.1)  
 No 0 2 (100)  
Bleeding length (days) 5.52 ± 1.5 5.19 ± 1.1 0.09
Severity of menstrual flow, n (%)    0.01
 Low 0 3 (100)  
 Moderate 30 (41.7) 42 (58.3)  
 Severe 16 (64) 9 (36)  
Family history of dysmenorrhea, n (%)    < 0.001
 Yes 41 (56.9) 31 (43.1)  
 No 5 (17.9) 23 (82.1)  
Physical activity level, n (%)    0.71
 Low 11 (47.8) 12 (52.2)  
 Moderate 27 (48.2) 29 (51.8)  
 High 8 (38.1) 13 (61.9)  
Depression-anxiety levels, n (%)    0.02
 Normal 9 (30) 21 (70)  
 Mild 24 (49) 25 (51)  
 Moderate 8 (80) 2 (20)  
 Severe 5 (45.5) 6 (54.5)  
BMI (kg/m2), (Mean ± SD) 21.71 ± 2.69 21.59 ± 2.39 0.4
Daily energy intake (Kcal), (Mean ± SD) 2655.20 ± 822.39 2706.99 ± 892.50 0.59
  1. aSignificance is derived from Pearson chi squared test for categorical variables (family history of dysmenorrhea, physical activity level and depression-anxiety level); fisher’s exact test for severity of menstrual flow and cycle regularity; independent-samples t-test for BMI and daily energy intake and Mann-Whitney U test for age, age at menarche, length of menstrual cycle and bleeding length