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Table 2 Predicted odds from multinomial logistic regression analyses of abstinence and met need for modern contraceptives in relation to unmet need among adolescent and young adult females aged 15–24 in Ghana, by selected characteristics and according to marital status

From: Correlates of sexual inactivity and met need for contraceptives among young women in Ghana

Characteristic All women (n = 1532) Single women (n = 1182) In union women (n = 350)
Abstinence Met need Abstinence Met need Abstinence Met need
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Marital Status
Single 3.342 (2.196, 5.086)*** 1.437 (.954, 2.163)  
Married (r) 1.000 1.000  
Age
15–17 0.994 (.598, 1.652) .535 (.292, .978)* 1.026 (.582, 1.808) .509 (.255, 1.015) 4.900 (.241, 99.680) 1.262 (.108, 14.821)
18–19 1.390 (.915, 2.109) .723 (.451, 1.159) 1.389 (.850, 2.272) .617 (.343, 1.110) 1.698 (.578, 4.988) 1.028 (.412, 2.564)
20–22 1.108 (.787, 1.562) .877 (.617, 1.246) 1.192 (.777, 1.828) .769 (.478, 1.236) .908 (.439, 1.878) .843 (.474, 1.498)
23–24 (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Educational attainment
No education (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Primary 1.045 (.580, 1.883) 1.029 (.563, 1.883) 1.449 (.644, 3.262) .625 (.253, 1.542) .678 (.227, 2.026) 1.913 (.584, 6.267)
JHS/JSS/Middle 1.469 (.838, 2.572) 1.282 (.713, 2.304) 2.090 (.966, 4.522) 1.023 (.439, 2.387) 1.125 (.399, 3.172) 1.857 (.743, 4.638)
Secondary/Higher 2.413 (1.306, 4.458)** 2.052 (1.059, 3.976)* 3.913 (1.764, 8.678)** 1.834 (.758, 4.437) .465 (.103, 2.093) 1.862 (.726, 4.779)
Wealth quintile
Poorest (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Poor .851 (.527, 1.374) .899 (.528, 1.530) .727 (.415, 1.275) .640 (.326, 1.254) 2.205 (.696, 6.984) 2.152 (.796, 5.820)
Middle .585 (.351, .977)* .710 (.404, 1.247) .451 (.248, .818)** .589 (.293, 1.185) 2.629 (.205, 4.394) 1.412 (.467, 4.274)
Rich .421 (.239, .742)** .416 (.222, .782)** .300 (.154, .583)*** .280 (.126, .621)** 1.352 (.325, 5.635) 1.049 (.330, 3.333)
Richest .638 (.334, 1.220) .634 (.305, 1.319) .540 (.256, 1.139) .641 (.264, 1.553) 2.816 (.451, 17.584) .742 (.162, 3.403)
Type of place of residence
Urban .975 (.995, 1.392) .962 (.660, 1.401) 1.111 (.760, 1.623) .979 (.620, 1.546) .483 (.197, 1.184) .938 (.455, 1.936)
Rural (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Region of residence
Western .947 (.464, 1.933) 2.937 (1.194, 7.224)* 1.421 (.625, 3.232) 2.705 (.787, 9.300) .257 (.042, 1.570) 3.379 (.753, 15.157)
Central .796 (.372, 1.702) 2.320 (.908, 5.926) .989 (.409, 2.391) 2.554 (.716, 9.114) .468 (.083, 2.645) 1.503 (.322, 7.025)
Greater Accra 1.082 (.516, 2.269) 3.371 (1.352, 8.405)** 1.836 (.774, 4.358) 4.116 (1.179, 14.372)* .161 (.026, 1.022) 1.844 (.403, 8.433)
Volta .504 (.224, 1.133) 2.57 (.989, 6.703) .844 (.327, 2.175) 4.092 (1.097, 15.263)* .131 (.017, 1.018) 1.112 (.223, 5.540)
Eastern .804 (.384, 1.684) 1.419 (.552, 3.650) 1.206 (.511, 2.845) 1.030 (.272, 3.904) .212 (.035, 1.267) 1.673 (.383, 7.304)
Ashanti 1.462 (.718, 2.976) 2.867 (1.126, 7.296)* 2.414 (1.061, 5.494)* 3.224 (.931, 11.164) .355 (.059, 2.131) 1.518 (.339, 6.805)
Brong Ahafo 1.221 (.591, 2.524) 5.637 (2.317,13.716)*** 1.944 (.836, 4.521) 7.265 (2.154, 24.504)** .220 (.036, 1.363) 2.498 (.590, 10.584)
Northern (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Upper East .993 (.356, 2.775) 2.446 (.722, 8.292) 1.362 (.358, 5.188) 3.178 (.523, 19.297) .358 (.061, 2.097) 1.250 (.212, 7.372)
Upper West 1.005 (.421, 2.400) 3.081 (1.088, 8.722)* 1.591 (.537, 4.716) 4.172 (.949, 18.341) .279 (.048, 1.632) 1.570 (.319, 7.715)
Religion
Catholic (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Protestant / Other Christian .814 (.503, 1.319) .844 (.495, 1.439) .707 (.402, 1.235) .673 (.342, 1.324) .852 (.246, 2.958) 1.404 (.537, 3.665)
Pentecostal / Charismatic 1.011 (.634, 1.612) .951 (.607, 1.701) 1.006 (.580, 1.743) 1.058 (.543, 2.060) .942 (.299, 2.963) 1.056 (.426, 2.616)
Muslim .643 (.365, 1.133) .619 (.321, 1.194) .595 (.308, 1.150) .825 (.359, 1.895) .367 (.129, 2.134) .326 (.101, 1.058)
Other .962 (.415, 2.233) .762 (.307, 1.891) .847 (.306, 2.332) .780 (.236, 2.575) 2.218 (.385, 12.774) .544 (.112, 2.643)
Ethnicity
Akan (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Ewe / Ga Dangme 1.588 (1.047, 2.409)* 1.280 (.800, 2.048) 1.424 (.893, 2.272) 1.058 (.593, 1.886) 1.733 (.513, 5.854) 1.833 (.728, 4.613)
Mole-Dagbani 1.674 (1.001, 2.799)* 1.100 (.605, 1.997) 1.325 (.750, 2.340) .678 (.331, 1.390) 3.702 (.705, 18.395) 4.436 (1.342, 14.669)*
Gursi / Gurma / Mande .940 (.530, 1.667) 1.442 (.788, 2.637) 1.040 (.540, 2.000) 1.006 (.459, 2.204) .272 (.040, 1.857)* 3.889 (1.219, 12.402)*
Other 2.153 (1.106, 4.190)* 1.028 (.445, 2.373) 1.963 (.924, 4.169) .639 (.218, 1.869) 5.199 (.986, 27.419) 3.324 (.690, 16.006)
Employment status
Not working (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
In school .822 (.544, 1.242) .912 (.554, 1.500) .884 (.570, 1.370) .958 (.556, 1.649) .941 (.052, 17.030) .310 (.027, 3.582)
Unpaid employment .739 (.505, 1.082) .953 (.629, 1.442) .788 (.508, 1.223) .964 (.572, 1.626) .768 (.308, 1.912) 1.207 (.560, 2.605)
Paid employment 1.008 (.722, 1.407) .855 (.593, 1.233) 1.301 (.869, 1.948) .904 (.566, 1.470) .578 (.266,1.256) .761 (.406, 1.425)
Number of living children
0 .679 (.390, 1.183) .311 (.180, .536)*** .768 (.333, 1.774) .270 (.117, .623)** .114 (.010, 1.287) .583 (.194, 1.754)
1 .607 (.370, .995)* .415 (.263, .654)*** .684 (.291, 1.610) .403 (.173, .942)* .718 (.352, 1.463) .454 (.252, .818)**
2+ (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Previous pregnancy termination
No (r) 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Yes .405 (.275, .596)*** 1.193 (.838, 1.699) .299 (.189, .475)*** 1.115 (.704, 1.765) .843 (.362, 1.963) 1.189 (.622, 2.270)
  1. Computed from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey
  2. OR Odds ratio, SE Standard Error
  3. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001