|Study first author, year||Fantasia 2012||Gee 2013||Laanpere 2013||Rocca 2013||Salazar 2014||Kazmerski 2015|
|Applicability of study sample|
1. Representative of the general population of women of reproductive age|
Is the study sample representative of the female population of reproductive age?
2. Representative of the general DVA population|
Is the study sample truly representative of the coutry DVA population?
|Risk of bias|
I. Selection of the non-exposed group|
Is the non-exposed group drawn from the same population as the exposed group?
II. Ascertainment of exposure|
Was the ascertainment of exposure prospective?
Was the exposure measured with a valid methos of assessment?
III. Comparability of groups|
Did study control for age, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, use of other reversible contraception methods?
IV. Assessment of outcome|
Was the ascertainment of outcome prospective?
Was the outcome ascertained with a valid methos of assessment?
Was the temporality of the outcome vs exposure assessed?
|Overall risk of bias for study||High||High||High||High||High||High|