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Table 1 Applicability and risk of bias assessed with the adapted Newcastle Ottawa Scale

From: Use of emergency contraception among women with experience of domestic violence and abuse: a systematic review

Study first author, year Fantasia 2012 Gee 2013 Laanpere 2013 Rocca 2013 Salazar 2014 Kazmerski 2015
Applicability of study sample
 1. Representative of the general population of women of reproductive age
 Is the study sample representative of the female population of reproductive age?
No No No No Yes No
 2. Representative of the general DVA population
 Is the study sample truly representative of the coutry DVA population?
No Yes No No Yes No
Risk of bias
 I. Selection of the non-exposed group
 Is the non-exposed group drawn from the same population as the exposed group?
Low Low Low Low Low Low
 II. Ascertainment of exposure
 Was the ascertainment of exposure prospective?
 Was the exposure measured with a valid methos of assessment?
High High High High High High
 III. Comparability of groups
 Did study control for age, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, use of other reversible contraception methods?
High Low High High High High
 IV. Assessment of outcome
 Was the ascertainment of outcome prospective?
 Was the outcome ascertained with a valid methos of assessment?
 Was the temporality of the outcome vs exposure assessed?
High High High High High High
Overall risk of bias for study High High High High High High
  1. Quality appraisal tool is the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale [19] adapted for this study. DVA domestic violence and abuse. Overall risk of bias for study is a reflection of the least favourable assessment for a single domain - e.g. if one domain is high risk whole study is high risk. Signalling questions that flag the potential for bias are shown in italic: Answer 'Yes' to signaling question indicates high risk of bias, answer 'No' indicates low risk of bias