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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with having at least one HR-HPV DNA test among women who sought cervical care through NJCEED, 2009–2015

From: Factors associated with high-risk human papillomavirus test utilization and infection: a population-based study of uninsured and underinsured women

  Proportion that ever had a HR-HPV DNA test (%) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age at enrollment into NJCEED (years)
 29–39 30.8 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 40–49 28.5 0.89 (0.84–0.95) 0.83 (0.78–0.88)
  ≥ 50 23.5 0.69 (0.65–0.73) 0.63 (0.59–0.67)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 21.8 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Non-Hispanic Black 25.8 1.25 (1.17–1.33) 1.38 (1.28–1.49)
 Asian/Pacific Islander 31.6 1.66 (1.52–1.80) 1.23 (1.03–1.46)
 Hispanic 28.4 1.42 (1.35–1.50) 1.54 (1.43–1.66)
Place of birth
 USA 23.6 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Central and South America 27.3 1.21 (1.15–1.27) 0.86 (0.80–0.92)
 Caribbean 27.6 1.23 (1.16–1.31) 0.91 (0.84–0.98)
 Africa 25.5 1.11 (0.95–1.31) 1.00 (0.85–1.17)
 Asia and the Middle East 32.7 1.57 (1.45–1.71) 1.61 (1.35–1.91)
 Europe, Russia and Australia and Oceania 35.3 1.76 (1.58–1.97) 2.18 (1.94–2.45)
 Other countriesa 22.7 0.95 (0.85–1.05) 0.95 (0.85–1.06)
Number of cervical screening visits
 1 22.7 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 2 31.5 1.56 (1.48–1.64) 1.60 (1.52–1.69)
  ≥ 3 43.1 2.58 (2.43–2.73) 2.77 (2.61–2.94)
Proportion of residents in ZCTA who are below the FPL
 Quintile 1 (0.0–6.9%) 27.2 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Quintile 2 (7.0–10.8%) 23.3 0.79 (0.74–0.85) 0.79 (0.74–0.85)
 Quintile 3 (10.9–18.5%) 23.7 0.81 (0.76–0.87) 0.81 (0.76–0.87)
 Quintile 4 (18.7–23.7%) 21.9 0.73 (0.69–0.78) 0.77 (0.72–0.82)
 Quintile 5 (24.4–100.0%) 35.9 1.47 (1.38–1.56) 1.50 (1.41–1.61)
Proportion of minority residents in ZCTA
 Quintile 1 (0.0–26.6%) 20.0 1.00 (ref)  
 Quintile 2 (26.7–49.0%) 24.2 1.27 (1.19–1.36)  
 Quintile 3 (50.4–76.4%) 34.0 2.06 (1.93–2.19)  
 Quintile 4 (76.5–87.2%) 21.4 1.09 (1.01–1.16)  
 Quintile 5 (87.8–98.8%) 32.9 1.96 (1.84–2.09)  
Proportion of uninsured residents in ZCTA
 Quintile 1 (0.0–13.0%) 24.4 1.00 (ref)  
 Quintile 2 (13.1–20.3%) 22.8 0.91 (0.86–0.98)  
 Quintile 3 (20.4–28.8%) 29.4 1.29 (1.21–1.37)  
 Quintile 4 (29.2–37.9%) 26.3 1.11 (1.04–1.18)  
 Quintile 5 (38.1–100.0%) 30.3 1.35 (1.27–1.43)  
Proportion of residents in ZCTA who don’t speak English very well
 Quintile 1 (0.0–5.7%) 19.0 1.00 (ref)  
 Quintile 2 (5.8–11.3%) 24.4 1.38 (1.29–1.47)  
 Quintile 3 (11.4–19.1%) 29.6 1.79 (1.68–1.91)  
 Quintile 4 (19.2–34.3%) 35.7 2.36 (2.21–2.52)  
 Quintile 5 (34.6–51.6%) 24.8 1.41 (1.31–1.50)  
  1. Multivariable-adjusted model was adjusted for all variables listed. Area-level measures are based on the distributions of the NJCEED study sample. We also tested the effect of including year (which was significantly associated with HR-HPV DNA testing rates, and the observed associations remained consistent, except the association between age and HR-HPV DNA testing, which showed that when year is included in the model, there was a stronger inverse association for the 40–49 years age group (OR 0.46, 95% CI: 0.40–0.52). Bolded values represent statistically significant associations (P <0.05)