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Table 3 Two-way table of predicted means (SEM) for the Australian Recommended Food Score categories by treatment condition and time (Intention To Treat analysis, ITT). Differences (p-value) over time and between treatments are shown in the table margins

From: The effect of a diabetes prevention program on dietary quality in women with previous gestational diabetes

ARFS categories Control#
(n = 228)
Intervention#
(n = 205)
Difference Effect size§
Fruit (p = 0.66) a
 Baseline 5.39 (0.19) 5.79 (0.19) 0.40 (0.14)
 12 Months 5.75 (0.21) 6.03 (0.21) 0.28 (0.35) 0.12 (−0.7, 0.31)
 Differential change 0.36 (0.057) 0.255 (0.22) −0.12 (− 0.66, 0.42) − 0.06 (− 0.25, 0.13)
Vegetables (p = 0.44) a  
 Baseline 13.63 (0.26) 13.38 (0.26) 0.25 (0.50)
 12 Months 13.56 (0.28) 13.58 (0.29) 0.02 (0.96) 0.03 (−0.16, 0.22)
 Differential change −0.07 (0.77) 0.20 (0.42) 0.27 (−0.41, 0.94) 0.05 (−0.13, 0.25)
Grains (p = 0.72) a
 Baseline 4.18 (0.10) 4.28 (0.10) 0.11 (0.46)
 12 Months 3.78 (0.11) 3.82 (0.12) 0.04 (0.79) 0.06 (−0.13, 0.25)
 Differential change −0.4 (<  0.01) * − 0.47 (< 0.01) * − 0.06 (− 0.40, 0.27) −0.07 (− 0.27, 0.11)
Protein
 Meat, Poultry and Eggs (p = 0.84) a
  Baseline 2.63 (0.09) 2.59 (0.09) −0.04 (0.75)
  12 Months 2.62 (0.09) 2.56 (0.10) −0.07 (0.63) 0.01 (−0.18, 0.20)
  Differential change 0.00 (0.97) −0.03 (0.75) −0.03 (− 0.28, 0.23) −0.04 (− 0.24, 0.14)
 Nuts and Legumes (p = 0.04) a, *
  Baseline 1.73 (0.08) 1.82 (0.08) 0.09 (0.40)
  12 Months 1.75 (0.08) 1.61 (0.09) −0.14 (0.24) − 0.13 (− 0.32, 0.06)
  Differential change 0.03 (0.72) −0.20 (0.01) * − 0.23 (− 0.45, − 0.01) −0.19 (− 0.38, 0.00)
 Fish (p = 0.511) a
  Baseline 0.41 (0.03) 0.35 (0.03) −0.07 (0.10)
  12 Months 0.40 (0.03) 0.37 (0.03) −0.03 (0.50) −0.02 (− 0.21, 0.17)
  Differential change − 0.01 (0.77) 0.02 (0.53) 0.08 (− 0.6, 0.21) 0.10 (− 0.09, 0.29)
 Total protein (p = 0.38) a
  Baseline 5.23 (0.13) 5.22 (0.13) −0.02 (0.93)
  12 Months 5.22 (0.44) 5.03 (0.15) −0.19 (0.34) −0.07 (− 0.27, 0.11)
  Differential change − 0.01 (0.94) −0.19 (0.19) − 0.18 (− 0.57, 0.22) −0.10 (− 0.29, 0.09)
 Dairy (p = 0.06) a
  Baseline 2.81 (0.07) 2.83 (0.07) 0.01 (0.87)
  12 Months 2.81 (0.07) 3.02 (0.08) 0.22 (0.04) * 0.25 (−0.44, 0.05)
  Differential change − 0.01 (0.93) 0.19 (< 0.01) * 0.20 (− 0.00, 0.41) 0.14 (− 0.06, 0.33)
 Total Score (p = 0.94) a
  Baseline 31.72 (0.52) 31.98 (0.52) 0.26 (0.73)
  12 Months 31.89 (0.57) 32.10 (0.58) 0.21 (0.80) 0.08 (−0.11, 0.28)
  Differential change 0.17 (0.72) 0.12 (0.80) −0.05 (−1.40, 1.29) − 0.04 (− 0.23, 0.16)
Alcohol (p = 0.86) a
 Baseline 33 (11.5) 30 (10.7) −0.02 (CI:-0.15, 0.11)
 12 Months 24 (10.9) 20 (9.9)* −0.03 (CI:-0.18, 0.13) 0.68 (0.46, 0.99)
 Differential change −0.01 (0.14) −0.02 (0.15) 0.94 (CI:0.48, 1.85)$
Fats (p = 0.12) a
 Baseline 102 (35.5) 104 (37.0) 0.02 (CI:-0.07, 0.10)
 12 Months 83 (37.6) 96 (47.1) 0.10 (CI:0.00, 0,19) 1.11 (0.60, 2.09)
 Differential change 0.02 (0.09) 0.10 (0.10) 1.41 (CI:0.92, 2.15)$
  1. a p-value for the F-test of Time by Treatment interaction
  2. *Significant p-value (p ≤ 0.05)
  3. # Mean (SD) for continuous scores, and number (percent) for dichotomised scores
  4. §Cohen’s D effect size (95% CI) for continuous scores, and OR (95% CI) for dichotomised scores
  5. Between-group (intervention versus placebo) differential change from baseline was estimated from the two-way interaction between intervention allocation and measurement time from (generalised) linear mixed model
  6. $ Odds ratio for comparing between-group (intervention vs placebo) change from baseline estimated from generalised linear mixed model’s two-way interaction between intervention allocation and measurement time