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Table 4 Two-way table of predicted means (SEM) for the Australian Recommended Food Score categories by treatment condition and time (Per Protocol Set analysis, PPS)

From: The effect of a diabetes prevention program on dietary quality in women with previous gestational diabetes

ARFS categories Control (n = 211) Intervention (n = 120) Difference
Fruit (p = 0.75) a
 Baseline 5.24 (0.22) 5.52 (0.29) 0.28 (0.44)
 12 Months 5.60 (0.22) 5.78 (0.29) 0.18 (0.62)
 Differential change 0.36 (0.06) 0.26 (0.30) −0.10 (−0.72, 0.52)
Vegetables (p = 0.49) a
 Baseline 13.58 (0.29) 13.53 (0.39) −0.06 (0.91)
 12 Months 13.53 (0.30) 13.75 (0.39) 0.22 (0.65)
 Differential change −0.05 (0.83) 0.22 (0.485) 0.28 (−0.51, 1.06)
Grains (p = 0.69) a
 Baseline 4.20 (0.12) 4.56 (0.16) 0.36 (0.07)
 12 Months 3.80 (0.12) 4.07 (0.16) 0.28 (0.16)
 Differential change −0.41 (<  0.01) * −0.49 (< 0.01) * − 0.08 (− 0.48, 0.32)
Protein
 Meat, Poultry and Eggs (p = 0.42) a
  Baseline 2.62 (0.10) 2.93 (0.13) 0.32 (0.05)
  12 Months 2.62 (0.10) 2.81 (0.13) 0.19 (0.25)
  Differential change 0.00 (0.98) −0.12 (0.32) −0.13 (− 0.43, 0.18)
 Nuts and Legumes (p = 0.09) a
  Baseline 1.69 (0.09) 1.70 (0.12) 0.02 (0.92)
  12 Months 1.74 (0.09) 1.53 (0.12) −0.21 (0.16)
  Differential change 0.05 (0.51) −0.17 (0.11) −0.22 (− 0.49, 0.04)
 Fish (p = 0.851) a
  Baseline 0.86 (0.06) 0.88 (0.07) 0.02 (0.79)
  12 Months 0.83 (0.06) 0.87 (0.07) 0.04 (0.66)
  Differential change −0.03 (0.58) −0.02 (0.86) 0.02 (− 0.15, 0.19)
 Total protein (p = 0.17) a
  Baseline 5.16 (0.15) 5.52 (0.20) 0.36 (0.15)
  12 Months 5.19 (0.15) 5.21 (0.20) 0.02 (0.94)
  Differential change 0.03 (0.85) −0.31 (0.11) −0.34 (− 0.82, 0.14)
Dairy (p = 0.05) a *
 Baseline 2.76 (0.08) 2.88 (0.10) 0.13 (0.31)
 12 Months 2.77 (0.08) 3.16 (0.10) 0.39 (<  0.01) *
 Differential change 0.02 (0.69) 0.16 (< 0.01) * 0.26 (0.01, 0.51)
Total Score (p = 0.997) a, b
 Baseline 31.44 (0.59) 32.43 (0.79) 1.00 (0.31)
 12 Months 31.68 (0.61) 32.67 (0.79) 0.99 (0.32)
 Differential change 0.24 (0.62) 0.24 (0.70) 0.00 (−1.54, 1.53)
  1. a p-value for the F-test of Time by Treatment interaction
  2. b Alcohol and fat categories are removed because the ITT and PPS analyses are the same in a GLMM setting for two time points
  3. *Significant p-value (p ≤ 0.05)