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Table 2 Multivariate model of factors associated with adherence and viral suppression

From: Examining adherence barriers among women with HIV to tailor outreach for long-acting injectable antiretroviral therapy

Factor Adherence Viral suppression
aOR 95% CI aOR 95% CI
Demographic and study characteristics
Number of abbreviated visits (per visit) 0.95 0.91–0.98 1.10 1.07–1.13
Number of missed visits (per visit) 0.97 0.95–1.00 0.99 0.97–1.01
Age (per 10 yr.) 1.41 1.32–1.49 1.59 1.54–1.64
Race/ethnicity (vs. White, non-Hispanic)
 African American, non-Hispanic 0.62 0.53–0.72 0.71 0.66–0.77
 Latina/Hispanic 0.76 0.64–0.90 0.84 0.77–0.91
 Asian/Pacific Islander/Native American or Alaskan/Other 1.10 0.79–1.52 0.99 0.85–1.15
Enrollment wave (vs. 1994–1995 northern site recruits)
 2001–2002 northern site recruits 1.07 0.97–1.20 1.75 1.65–1.85
 2011–2012 northern site recruits 1.85 1.44–2.39 3.29 2.89–3.75
 2013–2015 southern site recruits 1.86 1.47–2.36 4.61 4.05–5.25
Less than high school education 0.95 0.87–1.05 1.04 0.99–1.09
Married or partnered 1.28 1.16–1.42 1.18 1.12–1.24
Unstable housing 0.87 0.71–1.06 0.96 0.85–1.09
Unemployed 0.95 0.85–1.06 0.78 0.72–0.82
Annual household income ≤$24,000 1.14 1.00–1.29 0.86 0.81–0.92
No health insurance 0.85 0.69–1.04 0.91 0.81–1.03
Pregnant in past 6 months 1.15 0.85–1.55 0.93 0.80–1.09
Depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16) 0.61 0.56–0.67 0.76 0.73–0.80
Substance use
Current smoker 0.77 0.70–0.85 0.67 0.63–0.70
Alcohol use (vs. None)
 Low (> 0–7 drinks per week) 0.88 0.79–0.97 0.95 0.90–1.01
 Moderate (> 7–12 drinks per week) 0.59 0.47–0.73 0.74 0.65–0.85
 Heavy (> 12 drinks per week) 0.51 0.43–0.60 0.69 0.62–0.78
Non-injected illicit drug use 0.68 0.61–0.76 0.93 0.87–0.99
Injected illicit drug use (vs. Never)
 Former 0.94 0.84–1.06 0.91 0.86–0.97
 Current 0.38 0.30–0.49 0.50 0.41–0.61
Medical injection experiences
Insulin use (medical injection; vs. Never)
  Former 1.00 0.77–1.29 1.15 1.00–1.31
  Current 1.01 0.76–1.35 1.15 0.99–1.33
Depo medroxyprogesterone acetate use (medical injection; vs. Never)
  Former 0.92 0.81–1.05 1.05 0.98–1.12
  Current 1.87 1.39–2.53 1.28 1.12–1.46
ART adherence characteristics
Cumulative time on ART > cumulative time off ART 1.32 1.12–1.56 0.82 0.74–0.91
Type of regimen switch (vs. same regimen as previous visit)
 Re-start (off ART at previous visit) 0.62 0.52–0.74 0.38 0.34–0.43
 Switch (different regimen than previous visit) 0.83 0.72–0.95 0.56 0.52–0.60