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Table 1 Key themes and sub-themes

From: Motivations to use hormonal contraceptive methods and condoms among HIV-positive and negative women randomized to a progestin contraceptive in Malawi: a qualitative study

Theme Sub-theme
1. Knowledge about HIV transmission and source of infection A. HIV transmission
 1. Unprotected sex
 2. Other iatrogenic (razor blades, needles, blood transfusion)
 3. Maternal-to-child transmission
B. Source of HIV information
 1. Health facilities
 2. Radio broadcasts and interpersonal contacts
 3. Study nurses
C. Source of HIV infection
 1. Unfaithful partners 2. Partners reluctant to disclose
2. Beliefs about condom effectiveness for HIV and pregnancy prevention 1. Condoms prevent HIV, STIs, and pregnancy
2. Worry about condom failure (e.g. breaking or having holes) for women without HIV
3. Partners view condoms as ineffective
4. Female condoms are more effective than male condoms due to female-control
3. Motivations for contraception A. Facilitators
 1. Desire to improve economic status (with fewer children)
 2. Desire to focus on other priorities in life (with fewer children)
 3. Protection against pregnancy complications, such as blood loss
 4. Partner support
 5. Determination to use even without partner support (e.g. covert use)
B. Facilitators—Women with HIV
 1. Pregnancy may lead to HIV progression, since both pregnancy and HIV suppress the immune system
4. Motivations for condom use A. Facilitators
 1. Uncertainty about partner status
B. Barriers
 1. Lack of woman’s control over decision making
 2. Situational use only (e.g. during menses or not using other contraceptive method)
C. Facilitators—Women with HIV
 1. Avoid infection with drug-resistant HIV strain
 2. Dual protection for implant users due to drug interactions between ARV and implant