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Table 1 Characteristics of women with, and without, PCOS according to BMI categories

From: Effect of body mass index (BMI) on phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Singapore women: a prospective cross-sectional study

BMI Non-PCOS
(n = 255)
p value PCOS
(n = 134)
p value
Normal (< 23)
n = 152
High (≥ 23)
n = 103
Normal (< 23)
n = 61
High (≥ 23)
n = 73
Mean age (SD) 31.35 ± 5.13 33.56 ± 5.16 0.001 29.18 ± 4.00 30.38 ± 3.94 0.083
Race
n (%)
   0.003    0.011
 Chinese 121 (79.6) 62 (60.2)   46 (75.4) 45 (61.6)  
 Malay 8 (5.3) 14 (13.6)   1 (1.6) 13 (17.8)  
 Indian 7 (4.6) 13 (12.6)   4 (6.6) 7 (9.6)  
 Others 16 (10.5) 14 (13.6)   10 (16.4) 8 (11.0)  
Marital status
n (%)
   0.039    0.379
 Married 110 (72.4) 86 (83.5)   40 (65.6) 53 (72.6)  
 Non-Married 42 (27.6) 17 (16.5)   21 (34.4) 20 (27.4)  
Employment status
n (%)
   0.475    0.194
 Full time 126 (82.9) 90 (88.2)   49 (80.3) 65 (90.3)  
 Part time 8 (5.3) 3 (2.9)   3 (4.9) 3 (4.2)  
 Not working 18 (11.8) 9 (8.8)   9 (14.8) 4 (5.6)  
Monthly income
n (%)
   0.742    0.302
 < $3000 70 (51.5) 52 (55.3)   19 (36.5) 34 (50.0)  
 $3000-$5000 44 (32.4) 30 (31.9)   25 (48.1) 24 (35.3)  
 > $5000 22 (16.2) 12 (12.8)   8 (15.4) 10 (14.7)  
Live births
n (%)
   0.263    0.549
 Nulliparous 95 (62.9) 57 (55.9)   50 (82.0) 56 (77.8)  
 Primi-/Multi-parous 56 (37.1) 45 (44.1)   11 (18.0) 16 (22.2)  
Smoking
n (%)
   0.926    0.109
 Smoker 8 (5.3) 5 (5.0)   2 (3.4) 8 (11.6)  
 Non-smoker 144 (94.7) 95 (95.0)   56 (96.6) 61 (88.4)  
Alcohol intake
n (%)
   0.467    0.118
 Drink 64 (47.8) 35 (42.7)   30 (58.8) 24 (43.6)  
 Non-drinker 70 (52.2) 47 (57.3)   21 (41.2) 31 (56.4)  
Coffee intake
n (%)
   0.413    0.100
 Never 34 (25.4) 16 (19.5)   14 (27.5) 8 (14.5)  
 Occasional 92 (68.7) 58 (70.7)   35 (68.6) 40 (72.7)  
 Frequent (> 1 cup per day) 8 (6.0) 8 (9.8)   2 (3.9) 7 (12.7)  
  1. Subjects were diagnosed as PCOS if they presented with at least 2 out of the 3 criteria, of either increased AFC ( >) 21 and/or ovarian volume (> 6.12 ml); hirsutism (mFG score ≥ 5) and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism (serum testosterone ≥ 1.89 nM); and/or oligomenorrhea (mean menstrual cycle length ≥ 35 days). Subjects were further classified as Normal (< 23) or high BMI (> 23) categories. Independent samples t-test was used for numerical variables and Pearson Chi-square test was used for categorical variables
  2. Missing data (n): employment status (1), monthly income (25), life births (2), smoking (3), alcohol intake (39), coffee intake(39)