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Table 3 Association of intimate partner violence and maternal health care services (unadjusted estimates)

From: Association between intimate partner violence and the use of maternal health care services among married Malawian women

  ANC visits ANC timing Institutional deliveries Skilled assistance during delivery PNC within 2 days after delivery
Variables OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Physical violencea 0.74 (0.18–3.01) 1.02 (0.77–1.33) 0.68 (0.42–1.10) 0.75 (0.50–1.14) 0.91 (0.64–1.29)
Sexual violenceb e 0.79 (0.58–1.07) 0.98 (0.61–1.57) 0.85 (0.55–1.31) 1.09 (0.74–1.59)
Emotional violencec 0.27 (0.05–1.53) 1.03 (0.80–1.33) 0.70 (0.45–1.07) 0.68 (0.46–1.01) 1.03 (0.75–1.42)
IPV (composite) d 0.32 (0.08–1.32) 0.93 (0.74–1.18) 0.58 (0.400.85) 0.59 (0.420.82) 0.94 (0.71–1.25)
  1. IPV intimate partner violence, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ANC antenatal care, PNC postnatal care
  2. aReference; no physical violence
  3. bReference; no sexual violence
  4. cReference; no emotional violence
  5. dReference; no any violence experienced
  6. eThere were no samples in those who experienced sexual violence and those that had adequate ANC visits