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Table 1 Change of demographic and behavioral characteristics of 2,150 mothers of Panel Study on Korean Children, 2008–2011

From: Harmful alcohol use among mothers of under-five child: findings from the Panel Study on Korean Children

Variables 2008, 1st year of survey Weighted value
Age, mean ± SD 31.3 ± 3.7 31.4 ± 0.1
Age of partner, mean ± SD 33.9 ± 4.0 33.9 ± 0.1
Highest education   
 High school or lower, N (%) 644 (30.9) 136,231 (30.9)
Highest education of partner   
 High school or lower education, N (%) 636 (31.0) 136,354 (31.0)
Preterm baby, N (%) 90 (4.5) 19,705 (4.5)
Year of survey 2008 2009 2010 2011 P for trendb
N (weighted %) N (weighted %) N (weighted %) N (weighted %)
Employed mothers 656 (31.5) 522 (27.3) 554 (30.4) 641 (35.1) 0.010
Monthly household incomea      
 < 3,442 USD 1,663 (80.8) 1,712 (77.2) 1,706 (75.2) 1,567 (69.1)  < .001
 3,442–6,885 USD 377 (18.0) 354 (19.3) 385 (19.3) 525 (27.8) 0.673
 > 6,885 USD 25 (1.3) 73 (3.5) 58 (3.5) 57 (3.1)
Plan for additional childbirth 577 (27.9) 658 (35.0) 557 (31.8) 343 (19.5) < .001
Psychological stress related with childcare      
 1st quartile 728 (34.1) 542 (28.6) 432 (24.1) 452 (25.7)
 2nd quartile 450 (22.2) 441 (23.2) 442 (24.7) 392 (22.0) 0.001
 3rd quartile 439 (21.1) 435 (23.3) 417 (22.9) 389 (22.3) 0.001
 4th quartile 461 (22.6) 486 (24.9) 511 (28.4) 521 (30.0) < .001
Low K-ASQ scorec      
 Communication 70 (3.7) 20 (1.2) 92 (5.2) 0.039
 Fine motor skills 12 (0.4) 34 (2.0) 30 (1.7) < .001
 Gross motor skills 7 (0.3) 93 (5.3) 32 (2.1) < 0.001
 Personal and social skills 24 (1.2) 40 (2.0) 17 (1.2) 0.967
 Problem-solving ability 34 (1.6) 45 (2.7) 28 (1.5) 0.931
  1. SD, standard deviation; SE, standard error; K-ASQ, Korean-Ages & Stages Questionnaire
  2. aConverted from Korean Won to U.S. dollar ($) based on the exchange rate in 2011 (1151.8 KW = 1 USD)
  3. bP values for trend were calculated with the annual weighted prevalence
  4. cProportion of children whose score of the domain less than 2 standard deviation, higher score indicates better performance. There are 777 missing cases (12.2%). The K-ASQ was not administered in 2011. Sum of column frequency may not be equal to 1 due to missing cases. Annual prevalence of harmful alcohol use increased from 0.7% in the 1st year to 2.6% in the 4th year (P < 0.001 for linear trend, Fig. 1). Harmful alcohol use of their partners increased from 16.8% in the 1st year to 22.1% in the 4th year (P < 0.001). Prevalence of current smoking remained as low as 0.8―1.2% throughout the study period (P = 0.216). Similarly, the prevalence of current smoking among their partners ranged between 50.9 and 53.4% without a significant linear trend