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Table 1 Demographic characteristics (N = 492)

From: Individual, family, and community factors related to loneliness in mothers raising children less than 3 years of age: a cross-sectional study

  Total Low social network (isolated) High social network (non-isolated) p-value*
n or (%) n or (%) n or (%)
Mean ± or SD Mean ± or SD Mean ± or SD
N (%) 492 (100.0) 171 (100.0) 321 (100.0)  
Age (years) 33.2 ± 4.8 33.0 ± 4.8 33.5 ± 5.0  
Family structure     
Nuclear family 446 (90.7) 156 (91.2) 290 (90.3) 0.049
Extended family 10 (2.0) 6 (3.5) 26 (8.1)  
Single-parent family 2 (0.4) 8 (4.7) 4 (1.2)  
Others 2 (0.4) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.3)  
Employment status     
Housewife 217 (44.1) 78 (45.6) 139 (43.3) 0.710
Full-time office worker 174 (35.4) 61 (35.7) 113 (35.2)  
Part-time worker 14 (2.8) 15 (8.8) 43 (13.4)  
Contract/temporary worker 58 (11.8) 8 (4.7) 12 (3.7)  
Self-employed 20 (4.1) 6 (3.5) 8 (2.5)  
Others 7 (1.4) 2 (1.2) 5 (1.6)  
Missing 2 (0.4) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.3)  
Number of years of residence     
 < 1 year 54 (11.0) 19 (11.1) 35 (10.9) 0.097
1 and < 5 years 220 (44.7) 84 (49.1) 136 (42.4)  
5 and < 10 years 99 (20.1) 37 (21.6) 62 (19.3)  
Over 10 years 116 (23.6) 29 (17.0) 87 (27.1)  
Missing 3 (0.6) 2 (1.2) 1 (0.3)  
Age of children eligible for health screening     
0 years old 178 (36.2) 69 (40.4) 109 (34.0) 0.542
1 year old 163 (33.1) 51 (29.8) 112 (34.9)  
2 years old 8 (1.6) 3 (1.8) 5 (1.6)  
3 years old 137 (27.8) 47 (27.5) 90 (28.0)  
Missing 6 (1.2) 1 (0.6) 5 (1.6)  
Number of children     
One 208 (42.3) 75 (43.9) 133 (41.4) 0.838
Two 218 (44.3) 76 (44.4) 142 (44.2)  
Three 58 (11.8) 18 (10.5) 40 (12.5)  
Four and more 8 (1.6) 2 (1.2) 6 (1.9)  
Missing 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Employment status of spouse/partner     
Full-time office worker 436 (88.6) 150 (87.7) 286 (89.1) 0.234
Self-employed 31 (6.3) 10 (5.8) 21 (6.5)  
Contract/temporary worker 6 (1.2) 4 (2.3) 2 (0.6)  
Part-time worker 4 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 4 (1.2)  
House husband 1 (0.2) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0)  
Others 3 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 2 (0.6)  
Missing 11 (2.2) 5 (2.9) 6 (1.9)  
  1. *Chi-square test, t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc analysis