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Table 2 Loneliness, individual and family, and community variables (N = 492)

From: Individual, family, and community factors related to loneliness in mothers raising children less than 3 years of age: a cross-sectional study

  Total Low High p-value*
Social network (isolated) Social network (non-isolated)
n or (%) n or (%) n or (%)
Mean ± or SD Mean ± or SD Mean ± or SD
N (%) 492 (100.0) 171 (100.0) 321 (100.0)  
Loneliness     
UCLA LS3-SF10 19.2 ± 5.4 22.3 ± 5.6 17.6 ± 4.6  < 0.001
Individual and family factors     
Number of parenting and life concerns 2.7 ± 2.2 3.0 ± 2.3 2.5 ± 2.2 0.007
Children’s toileting problems 111 (22.6) 49 (28.7) 62 (19.3) 0.017
How to play with and pamper the child 83 (16.9) 37 (21.6) 46 (14.3) 0.037
Financial worries 119 (24.2) 55 (32.2) 64 (19.9) 0.002
Balancing work and childcare 151 (30.7) 64 (37.4) 87 (27.1) 0.017
Health behaviors of mothers     
Not sufficient rest from sleep 254 (51.6) 101 (59.1) 153 (47.7) 0.013
No exercise habit 431 (87.6) 146 (85.4) 285 (88.8) 0.439
Smoking 17 (3.5) 5 (2.9) 12 (3.7) 0.646
Not eating breakfast every day 92 (18.7) 32 (18.7) 60 (18.7) 0.972
Drink alcohol every day 28 (5.7) 10 (5.8) 18 (5.6) 0.901
Partners’ supportive behaviors scale     
Emotional support 41.8 ± 8.8 41.0 ± 9.0 42.2 ± 8.7 0.187
Household and childcare 45.9 ± 8.7 45.2 ± 8.4 46.2 ± 8.9 0.258
Total partners’ supportive behaviors 87.7 ± 15.2 86.3 ± 15.6 88.4 ± 15.2 0.135
Community factors     
Interest in interacting with neighbors     
No 180 (36.6) 84 (49.1) 96 (29.9)  < 0.001
Desire to interact with neighbors     
No 209 (42.5) 92 (53.8) 117 (36.4)  < 0.001
Not greeting their neighbors 23 (4.7) 7 (4.1) 16 (5.0) 0.003
Number of community childcare resources used 2.0 ± 1.7 1.8 ± 1.5 2.1 ± 1.8 0.030
Community child rearing support center 236 (48.0) 94 (55.0) 142 (44.2) 0.023
Comprehensive community support center 173 (35.2) 48 (28.1) 125 (38.9) 0.016
Volunteer-sponsored park play 82 (16.7) 17 (9.9) 65 (20.2) 0.003
Parent–child group 72 (14.6) 14 (8.2) 58 (18.1) 0.003
Number of people to consult about parenting 3.8 ± 1.5 3.2 ± 1.3 4.1 ± 1.6  < 0.001
Talk to parents 402 (81.7) 125 (73.1) 277 (86.3)  < 0.001
Talk to friends 356 (72.4) 90 (52.6) 266 (82.9)  < 0.001
Consulted with family doctor 241 (49.0) 60 (35.1) 181 (56.4)  < 0.001
Community commitment scale 13.0 ± 4.3 11.7 ± 4.1 13.6 ± 4.2  < 0.001
Socializing 6.6 ± 2.6 6.0 ± 2.6 6.9 ± 2.5  < 0.001
Belonging 6.4 ± 2.3 5.7 ± 2.2 6.7 ± 2.2  < 0.001
  1. UCLA LS3-SF10: UCLA loneliness scale ver. 3 short-form 10 items
  2. *Chi-square test, t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc analysis