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Table 3 Relationship between loneliness and demographics and individual, family, and community factors (N = 492)

From: Individual, family, and community factors related to loneliness in mothers raising children less than 3 years of age: a cross-sectional study

   n Correlation r or Mean ± SD p-value
Demographic characteristics     
Age (yrs)   482 0.073 0.107
Age of children eligible for health screening     
0 years old   178 19.2 ± 5.5 0.491
1 years old   163 18.9 ± 5.5  
2 years old   8 17.6 ± 5.4  
3 years old   137 19.7 ± 5.3  
Employment status     
Housewives   217 19.7 ± 5.7 0.262
Full-time office workers   174 18.4 ± 4.8  
Part-time workers   58 19.2 ± 5.3  
Contract/temporary workers   20 19.5 ± 6.3  
Self-employed   14 20.4 ± 6.2  
Others   7 20.4 ± 5.4  
Number of years of residence     
 < 1 year   54 19.6 ± 4.8 0.015
1 and < 5 years   220 19.9 ± 5.8  
5 and < 10 years   99 19.0 ± 5.2  
Over 10 years   116 17.9 ± 5.0  
Individual and family factors     
Number of parenting and life concerns   491 0.338  < 0.001
Illness and developmental problems Yes 83 21.2 ± 6.3 0.002
  No 408 18.8 ± 5.1  
Food-related problems Yes 155 20.1 ± 5.9 0.010
  No 335 18.8 ± 5.1  
Sleep problems Yes 89 20.4 ± 5.4 0.028
  No 401 19.0 ± 5.4  
How to play with and pamper the child Yes 83 22.2 ± 5.5  < 0.001
  No 408 18.6 ± 5.2  
Discipline problems Yes 238 20.2 ± 5.7  < 0.001
  No 253 18.3 ± 5.0  
Children’s toileting problems Yes 111 20.8 ± 6.2 0.001
  No 380 18.8 ± 5.1  
Financial worries Yes 119 21.5 ± 5.6  < 0.001
  No 369 18.4 ± 5.1  
Family problems Yes 100 22.3 ± 5.6  < 0.001
  No 389 18.4 ± 5.0  
Balancing work and childcare Yes 151 20.4 ± 5.2 0.002
  No 339 18.7 ± 5.4  
Health behaviors of mothers     
Not sufficient rest from sleep Yes 254 20.2 ± 5.7  < 0.001
  No 237 18.2 ± 5.0  
No exercise habit Yes 431 19.4 ± 5.3 0.031
  No 59 17.8 ± 5.8  
Smoking Yes 17 21.1 ± 6.8 0.142
  No 474 19.2 ± 5.4  
Not eating breakfast every day Yes 92 20.6 ± 6.0 0.006
  No 399 18.9 ± 5.2  
Drinking alcohol every day Yes 28 20.3 ± 5.9 0.268
  No 463 19.2 ± 5.4  
Partners’ supportive behaviors for household duties and childcare   477 − 0.360 <0.001
Community factors     
Number of people to consult about parenting   492  − 0.250  < 0.001
Consulted with family doctor Yes 241 18.0 ± 5.0  < 0.001
  No 251 20.4 ± 5.6  
Ask for advice online Yes 76 20.6 ± 5.9 0.012
  No 416 19.0 ± 5.3  
Community commitment   486  − 0.301  < 0.001
  1. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey post hoc analysis
  2. *p < 0.05