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Table 3 Bivariate associations between specific postmigration stressors (PMLDs) on depression, anxiety and PTSD

From: Mental health of clinic-attending Syrian refugee women in Jordan: associations between social ecological risks factors and mental health symptoms

   Depression (n = 507) Anxiety (n = 503) Post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 506)
Total (n = 507) Participants not meeting depression criteria (n = 188) Participants meeting depression criteria (n = 319) Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test Participants not meeting anxiety criteria (n = 214) Participants meeting anxiety criteria (n = 289) Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test Participants not meeting PTSD criteria (n = 171) Participants meeting PTSD criteria (n = 335) Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test
n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD) n(%) or \({\overline{\text{x}}}\) (SD)
Poverty (%)           
 Big/very big problem 401 (79.09) 125 (66.49) 276 (86.52) p < 0.001 146 (68.22) 252 (87.20) p < 0.001 108 (63.16) 293 (87.46) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 106 (20.91) 63 (33.51) 43 (13.48)   68 (31.78) 37 (12.80)   63 (36.84) 42 (12.54)  
Fears of forced return to Syria (%) n = 506           
 Big/very big problem 399 (78.85) 145 (77.13) 254 (79.87) p < 0.465 164 (76.64) 231 (80.21) p < 0.334 123 (71.93) 275 (82.34) p = 0.007
 No/moderate problem 107 (21.15) 43 (22.87) 64 (20.13)   50 (23.36) 57 (19.79)   48 (28.07) 59 (17.66)  
Worries about not getting treatment for health problem (%) n = 506           
 Big/very big problem 377 (74.51) 120 (63.83) 257 (80.82) p < 0.001 139 (65.26) 236 (81.66) p < 0.001 99 (57.89) 278 (83.23) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 129 (25.49) 68 (36.17) 61 (19.18)   74 (34.74) 53 (18.34)   72 (42.11) 56 (16.77)  
Worry of family in Syria (%)           
 Big/very big problem 372 (73.37) 119 (63.30) 253 (79.31) p < 0.001 135 (63.08) 235 (81.31) p < 0.001 99 (57.89) 273 (81.49) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 135 (26.63) 69 (36.70) 66 (20.69)   79 (36.92) 54 (18.69)   72 (42.11) 62 (18.51)  
Unable to return home in emergency (%) n = 506           
 Big/very big problem 365 (72.13) 114 (60.64) 251 (78.93) p < 0.001 132 (61.68) 230 (79.86) p < 0.001 93 (54.39) 272 (81.44) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 141 (27.87) 74 (39.36) 67 (21.07)   82 (38.32) 58 (20.14)   78 (45.61) 62 (18.56)  
Not being able to find work (%) n = 504           
 Big/very big problem 361 (71.63) 119 (63.30) 242 (76.58) p = 0.001 136 (63.55) 224 (78.32) p < 0.001 103 (60.59) 258 (77.48) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 143 (28.37) 69 (36.70) 74 (23.42)   78 (36.45) 62 (21.68)   67 (39.41) 75 (22.52)  
Poor access to schooling for children (%)           
 Big/very big problem 318 (62.72) 101 (53.72) 217 (68.03) p = 0.001 118 (55.14) 199 (86.78) p = 0.002 81 (47.37) 237 (70.75) p < 0.001
 No/moderate Problem 189 (37.28) 87 (46.28) 102 (31.97)   96 (44.86) 90 (31.14)   90 (52.63) 98 (29.25)  
Loneliness and boredom (%) n = 506           
 Big/very big problem 289 (57.11) 61 (32.45) 228 (71.70) p < 0.001 83 (38.79) 203 (70.49) p < 0.001 55 (32.16) 234 (70.06) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 217 (42.89) 127 (67.55) 90 (28.30)   131 (61.21) 85 (29.51)   116 (67.84) 100 (29.94)  
Isolation (%) n = 503           
 Big/very big problem 251 (49.90) 54 (29.03) 197 (62.15) p < 0.001 73 (34.27) 176 (61.54) p < 0.001 52 (30.41) 199 (60.12) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 252 (50.10) 132 (70.97) 120 (37.85)   140 (65.73) 110 (38.46)   119 (69.59) 132 (39.88)  
Family separation (%)           
 Big/very big problem 248 (48.92) 72 (38.30) 176 (55.17) p < 0.001 84 (39.25) 162 (56.06) p < 0.001 61 (35.67) 187 (55.82) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 259 (51.08) 116 (61.70) 143 (44.83)   130 (60.75) 127 (43.94)   110 (64.33) 148 (44.18)  
Poor access to psychological services (%)           
 Big/very big problem 194 (38.26) 41 (21.81) 153 (47.96) p < 0.001 53 (24.77) 141 (48.79) p < 0.001 34 (19.88) 160 (47.76) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 313 (61.74) 147 (78.19) 166 (52.04)   161 (75.23) 148 (51.21)   137 (80.12) 175 (52.24)  
Discrimination (%) n = 506           
 Big/very big problem 82 (16.17) 14 (7.45) 68 (21.32) p < 0.001 20 (9.35) 59 (20.42) p = 0.001 9 (5.29) 73 (21.79) p < 0.001
 No/moderate problem 425 (83.83) 174 (92.55) 251 (78.68)   194 (90.65) 229 (79.58)   162 (94.74) 262 (78.21)  
Immigration application challenges (%) n = 505           
 Big/very big problem 80 (15.84) 23 (12.30) 57 (17.92) p = 0.095 31 (14.55) 49 (17.01) p = 0.457 18 (10.59) 62 (18.56) p = 0.021
 No/moderate problem 425 (84.16) 164 (87.70) 261 (82.08)   182 (85.45) 239 (82.99)   152 (89.41) 272 (81.44)  
Communication (%) n = 506           
 Big/very big problem 32 (6.32) 7 (3.74) 25 (7.84) p = 0.068 7 (3.29) 25 (8.65) p = 0.015 1 (0.59) 31 (9.25) p < 0.001a
 No/moderate problem 474 (93.68) 180 (96.26) 294 (92.16)   206 (96.71) 264 (91.35)   169 (99.41) 304 (90.75)  
  1. PMLDs are listed according to greatest frequency of being a Big/Very Big Problem; Chi-square test used unless otherwise noted; significant p-values (p < .05) are highlighted in bold
  2. SD standard deviation
  3. aFisher’s exact test used