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Table 5 Multivariable associations between specific community and societal-level risk factors on depression, anxiety, and PTSD

From: Mental health of clinic-attending Syrian refugee women in Jordan: associations between social ecological risks factors and mental health symptoms

  Depression (n = 507) Anxiety (n = 503) Post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 506)
uOR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI) uOR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI) uOR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI)
Poverty 1.57 (0.93, 2.66) 1.45 (0.82, 2.54) 1.69 (1.00, 2.87) 1.36 (0.76, 2.45) 1.84 (1.07, 3.16)* 1.45 (0.79, 2.67)
Fears of forced return to Syria 0.67 (0.39, 1.14) 0.58 (0.32, 1.05) 0.70 (0.42, 1.18) 0.73 (0.41, 1.29) 0.84 (0.49, 1.46) 0.86 (0.46, 1.63)
Worries about not getting treatment for health problem 1.38 (0.83, 2.28) 1.28 (0.75, 2.21) 1.39 (0.84, 2.29) 1.26 (0.73, 2.18) 1.89 (1.12, 3.16)* 2.05 (1.14, 3.68)*
Worry of family in Syria 1.15 (0.69, 1.91) 1.16 (0.67, 1.99) 1.43 (0.87, 2.35) 1.43 (0.83, 2.47) 1.52 (0.90, 2.55) 1.58 (0.88, 2.85)
Unable to Return home in Emergency 1.36 (0.82, 2.25) 1.44 (0.84, 2.48) 1.36 (0.83, 2.25) 1.29 (0.75, 2.23) 1.86 (1.11, 3.12)* 1.98 (1.11, 3.54)*
Not being able to find work 1.08 (0.67, 1.73) 1.06 (0.64, 1.76) 1.24 (0.78, 1.96) 1.27 (0.76, 2.11) 1.10 (0.68, 1.80) 1.13 (0.65, 1.95)
Poor access to schooling for children 1.03 (0.66, 1.60) 1.06 (0.65, 1.73) 1.13 (0.73, 1.73) 1.20 (0.73, 1.96) 1.45 (0.92, 2.27) 1.41 (0.84, 2.39)
Isolation 2.59 (1.67, 4.01)*** 2.58 (1.63, 4.09)*** 1.95 (1.28, 2.97)** 1.89 (1.20, 2.99)** 1.64 (1.04, 2.60)* 1.55 (0.93, 2.58)
Family separation 1.08 (0.69, 1.69) 1.05 (0.65, 1.70) 1.07 (0.69, 1.65) 1.13 (0.70, 1.80) 1.09 (0.68, 1.74) 1.14 (0.68, 1.93)
Poor access to psychological services 1.99 (1.24, 3.90)** 1.71 (1.05, 2.80)* 1.70 (1.09, 2.64)* 1.49 (0.92, 2.41) 1.77 (1.08, 2.92)* 1.49 (0.87, 2.57)
Discrimination 1.91 (0.97, 3.77) 2.02 (0.98, 4.14) 1.40 (0.76, 2.60) 1.55 (0.79, 3.06) 2.68 (1.24, 5.81)* 3.58 (1.56, 8.20)**
Immigration application challenges 1.27 (0.71, 2.25) 1.29 (0.69, 2.39) 0.96 (0.54, 1.65) 0.86 (0.48, 1.56) 1.48 (0.79, 2.75) 1.37 (0.68, 2.75)
Communication 0.95 (0.36, 2.51) 1.00 (0.36, 2.82) 1.46 (0.57, 3.76) 1.68 (0.61, 4.63) N/A N/A
  1. The adjusted covariates were age, marriage status, ability to read and write with ease, number of children under 18, IPV past year, years in Jordan, time displaced in Syria, and clinic location
  2. CI confidence interval, uOR unadjusted odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  3. Significant p-values are highlighted in bold; *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001