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Table 4 Distribution of selected variables according to violence during pregnancy among women in Kenya (2014), weighted

From: Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Kenya: forms, perpetrators and associations

Variable Violence during pregnancy (n = 397) No violence during pregnancy (n = 3914) p-value Chi-square or t-value
Age (mean) 32.1 (8.0) 31.5 (8.0) 0.158 1.413
Age in 5-year-group
15–19 2.3 4.0 0.103 10.551
20–24 17.4 17.0   
25–29 29.0 24.2   
30–34 16.8 18.4   
35–39 14.0 15.5   
40–44 9.7 12.1   
45–49 10.7 8.7   
Age at first cohabitation
\(\le\) 14 9.4 7.6 < 0.001 − 4.666
15–17 28.3 23.9   
18+ 58.2 58.9   
Age at sexual debut
\(\le\) 14 18.4 13.3 0.080 -1.754
15–17 27.1 24.3   
18+ 47.0 53.4   
Religion
Roman Catholic 18.8 20.2 0.084 7.948
Protestant, other Christian 75.3 70.1   
Muslim 3.8 6.5   
No religion 2.1 2.8   
Other religion 0.1 0.4   
Residence
Urban 42.4 39.9 0.366 0.816
Rural 57.6 60.1   
Region
Central 5.7 13.7 < 0.001 105.050
Eastern 17.3 27.8   
Western 55.5 48.7   
Nairobi 21.6 9.8   
Marital status
Married or living together 61.3 77.2 < 0.001 200.750
Divorced, separated, widowed 18.6 13.2   
Number of living children
0 1.5 3.3 0.004 3.128
1–2 41.3 46.3   
3–4 33.8 28.9   
5+ 23.4 21.6   
Employment (yes) 77.4 71.6 0.015 5.910
Education
No education 6.2 8.8 < 0.001 18.490
Primary 65.2 55.1   
Secondary or higher 28.7 36.1   
Wealth quintile
Poorer or poorest 40.4 35.4 < 0.001 24.135
Middle 17.8 19.5   
Richer or richest 41.8 45.1   
Woman afraid of partner
Never 34.9 60.1 < 0.001 195.320
Sometimes 29.7 20.9   
Most of the time 31.3 9.3   
Timing of first violence after marriage
0 year 16.1 4.3 < 0.001 4.047
1–2 years 26.4 10.4   
3–4 years 16.7 6.5   
5–10 years 14.7 8.0   
11+ years 5.3 2.2   
Woman’s father beat mother 42.0 37.1 0.163 3.631
Partner’s age
15–24 1.5 2.3 0.075 1.787
25–34 22.9 27.6   
35+ 35.8 46.8   
Partner’s education
No education 5.4 6.8 0.027 9.815
Primary 49.1 42.1   
Secondary or higher 43.1 44.7   
Partner working
Did not work 1.6 1.4 0.010 18.401
Professional, technical, managerial or clerical or services 25.5 24.4   
Manual or agricultural or household and domestic 72.8 74.0   
Partner’s alcohol consumption
Never 0.0 0.3 < 0.001 91.103
Often 35.9 10.3   
Sometimes 18.0 21.0   
Total 15–49 years 391 3914   
  1. All variables are expressed as proportions (in %) except for age (mean and standard deviation). Age variables are presented in years
  2. Chi-square or t-value and p-value concern the violence during pregnancy
  3. Bold indicates p-value < 0.05 is statistically significant