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Table 5 Distribution of selected variables according to emotional violence among women in Kenya (2014), weighted

From: Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Kenya: forms, perpetrators and associations

Variable Emotional violence (n = 1301) No emotional violence (n = 2717) No violence in any form (n = 2008) p-value Chi-square or t-value
Age (mean) 32.7 (8.0) 31.2 (7.9) 31.3 (7.8) < 0.001 − 5.644
Age in 5-year-group
15–19 1.6 3.3 2.8 0.001 21.804
20–24 13.7 17.2 17.1   
25–29 25.2 24.8 24.3   
30–34 19.2 18.8 19.1   
35–39 16.9 15.2 15.6   
40–44 13.2 12.0 12.6   
45–49 10.3 8.6 8.5   
Age at first cohabitation
\(\le\) 14 9.8 7.7 7.7 < 0.001 3.836
15–17 28.9 25.5 24.5   
18+ 61.4 66.8 67.8   
Age at sexual debut
\(\le\) 14 17.1 10.9 10.4 < 0.001 8.916
15–17 33.7 31.8 29.2   
18+ 49.1 57.3 60.4   
Religion
Roman Catholic 18.7 19.9 19.4 < 0.001 65.066
Protestant, other Christian 75.8 68.5 68.1   
Muslim 2.4 8.8 9.6   
No religion 2.4 2.5 2.6   
Other religion 0.7 0.2 0.3   
Residence
Urban 39.4 39.5 39.7 0.998 < 0.001
Rural 60.6 60.5 60.3   
Region
Central 11.0 13.8 14.3 < 0.001 134.55
Eastern 22.2 30.6 31.5   
Western 53.8 46.6 46.2   
Nairobi 13.0 9.0 8.0   
Marital status
Married or living together 74.1 87.7 89.2 < 0.001 192.630
Divorced, separated, widowed 25.9 12.3 10.8   
Number of living children
0 3.4 5.8 3.2 < 0.001 4.494
1–2 36.8 43.4 46.2   
3–4 34.7 28.8 29.0   
5+ 25.1 22.0 21.5   
Employment (yes) 80.2 68.6 66.8 < 0.001 59.001
Education
No education 6.5 10.7 10.9 < 0.001 29.693
Primary 61.3 54.1 52.0   
Secondary or Higher 32.2 35.2 37.1   
Wealth quintile
Poorer or Poorest 38.0 36.4 35.3 < 0.001 35.834
Middle 21.5 17.7 17.8   
Richer or Richest 40.5 45.9 46.9   
Woman afraid of partner
Never 42.2 74.4 80.3 < 0.001 456.280
Sometimes 32.8 19.2 15.5   
Most of the time 24.8 6.3 4.2   
Timing of first violence after marriage
0 year 11.0 3.5 0.0 0.178 35.861
1–2 years 25.2 6.9 0.0   
3–4 years 16.2 4.1 0.0   
5–10 years 17.2 5.6 0.0   
11+ years 5.4 1.3 0.0   
Woman’s father beat mother 45.3 33.8 30.5 < 0.001 49.548
Partner’s age
15–24 2.2 3.2 2.8 < 0.001 − 4.417
25–34 23.3 33.6 32.9   
35+ 47.6 50.6 53.1   
Partner’s education
No education 4.9 8.7 8.3 < 0.001 22.457
Primary 50.2 45.1 43.4   
Secondary or Higher 43.8 45.3 46.9   
Partner working
Did not work 1.8 1.4 1.6 < 0.001 34.689
Professional, technical, managerial or clerical or services 23.7 25.4 27.1   
Manual or agricultural or household and domestic 74.5 73.1 70.2   
Partner’s alcohol consumption
Never 0.4 0.3 0.3 < 0.001 105.400
Often 25.8 7.9 5.7   
Sometimes 23.5 22.3 20.4   
Total 15–49 years 1301 2717 2008   
  1. All variables are expressed as proportions (in %) except for age (mean and standard deviation). Age variables are presented in years
  2. Chi-square or t-value and p-value concern the emotional violence
  3. Bold indicates p-value < 0.05 is statistically significant