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Table 8 Multivariable analysis of violence among pregnant women in Kenya (2014), adjusted and weighted

From: Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Kenya: forms, perpetrators and associations

Variable aOR 95% CI p-value
Age (continuous) 1.01 0.99–1.02 0.321
Age in 5-year-group
15–19\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
20–24 1.90 0.95–4.37 0.095
25–29 1.90 0.96–4.31 0.090
30–34 1.63 0.81–3.75 0.205
35–39 1.73 0.86–3.99 0.157
40–44 2.03 0.99–4.73 0.073
45–49 2.02 0.97–4.77 0.080
Age at first cohabitation
\(\le 14^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
15–17 1.27 1.01–1.58 0.042*
18+ 0.75 0.60–0.94 0.011*
Age at sexual debut
\(\le 14^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
15–17 1.21 0.97–1.50 0.096
18+ 0.65 0.53–0.80 < 0.001**
Religion
Roman Catholic\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Protestant, other Christian 1.13 0.87–1.48 0.353
Muslim 0.44 0.27–0.68 < 0.001**
No religion 1.03 0.51–1.90 0.934
Other religion 1.09 0.17–4.01 0.914
Residence
Urban\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Rural 0.95 0.76–1.19 0.679
Region
Central\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Eastern 0.47 0.37–0.61 < 0.001**
Western 1.95 1.57–2.44 < 0.001**
Nairobi 3.51 1.85–6.53 < 0.001**
Marital status
Married or living together\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Divorced, separated, widowed 1.91 1.47–2.47 < 0.001**
Number of living children
0\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
1–2 0.68 0.53–0.88 0.003**
3–4 1.23 0.99–1.52 0.058
5 1.28 0.97–1.67 0.075
Employment (Yes) 1.34 1.06–1.70 0.016*
Education
No education\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Primary 1.53 1.11–2.14 0.011*
Secondary or higher 0.53 0.40–0.69 < 0.001**
Wealth quintile
Poorer or poorest\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Middle 1.00 0.71–1.39 0.989
Richer or Richest 0.75 0.57–0.98 0.035*
Woman afraid of partner
Never\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Sometimes 3.38 2.61–4.38 < 0.001**
Most of the time 6.38 4.85–8.41 < 0.001**
Woman’s father beat mother 1.59 1.28–1.97 < 0.001**
Partner’s age
15–24\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
25–34 1.12 0.82–1.52 0.485
35+ 0.90 0.64–1.25 0.519
Partner’s education
No education\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Primary 2.14 1.47–3.18 < 0.001**
Secondary or higher 0.85 0.66–1.09 0.196
Partner working
Did not work\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Professional, technical, managerial or clerical or services 0.79 0.59–1.04 0.099
Manual or agricultural or household and domestic 1.28 0.98–1.69 0.071
Partner’s alcohol consumption
Never\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Often 4.04 2.97–5.54 < 0.001**
Sometimes 0.26 0.19–0.36 < 0.001**
  1. Model is adjusted for woman’s age, education, ethnicity, employment and place of residence (urban, rural). Age variable is presented in years
  2. aOR, adjusted Odds Ratio. 95% CI, 95% Confidence Interval. \(^{\mathrm{r}}\) Reference group
  3. *p-value \(<0.05\). **p-value \(<0.005\)