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Table 9 Multivariate analysis of emotional violence among pregnant women in Kenya (2014), adjusted and weighted

From: Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Kenya: forms, perpetrators and associations

Variable aOR 95% CI p-value
Age (continuous) 1.02 1.01–1.02 < 0.001**
Age in 5-year-group
15–19\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
20–24 1.42 0.92–2.23 0.122
25–29 1.42 0.94–2.22 0.110
30–34 1.61 1.06–2.53 0.032*
35–39 1.71 1.12–2.70 0.016*
40–44 1.77 1.14–2.82 0.013*
45–49 1.87 1.19–3.00 0.008*
Age at first cohabitation
\(\le\) 14\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
15–17 1.26 1.09–1.46 0.002**
18+ 0.72 0.63–0.83 < 0.001**
Age at sexual debut
\(\le\) 14\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
15–17 1.31 1.14–1.51 < 0.001**
18+ 0.62 0.54–0.70 < 0.001**
Religion
Roman Catholic\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Protestant, other Christian 1.08 0.91–1.27 0.381
Muslim 0.28 0.21–0.38 < 0.001**
No religion 0.89 0.57–1.36 0.594
Other religion 2.41 0.90–6.59 0.079
Residence
Urban\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Rural 1.02 0.88–1.17 0.827
Region
Central\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Eastern 0.60 0.52–0.69 < 0.001**
Western 1.68 1.47–1.92 < 0.001**
Nairobi 1.83 1.18–2.82 0.006*
Marital status
Married or living together\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Divorced, separated, widowed 1.97 1.66–2.35 < 0.001**
Number of living children
\(0^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
1–2 0.81 0.70–0.95 0.008*
3–4 1.26 1.10–1.44 < 0.001**
5 1.06 0.89–1.26 0.507
Employment (yes) 1.99 1.71–2.32 < 0.001**
Education
No education\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Primary 1.56 1.27–1.92 < 0.001**
Secondary or higher 0.81 0.69–0.93 < 0.005**
Wealth quintile
Poorer or Poorest\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Middle 1.12 0.91–1.38 0.283
Richer or Richest 0.65 0.55–0.76 < 0.001**
Woman afraid of partner
Never\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Sometimes 3.27 2.80–3.83 < 0.001**
Most of the time 7.30 5.99–8.92 < 0.001**
Woman’s father beat mother 1.82 1.59–2.08 < 0.001**
Partner’s age
15–24\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
25–34 0.86 0.72–1.04 0.118
35+ 1.16 0.96–1.42 0.132
Partner’s education
No education\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Primary 1.94 1.52–2.47 < 0.001**
Secondary or higher 0.88 0.76–1.03 0.108
Partner working
Did not work\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Professional, technical, managerial or clerical or services 0.77 0.65–0.90 0.002**
Manual or agricultural or household and domestic 1.24 1.06–1.45 0.009*
Partner’s alcohol consumption
Never\(^{\mathrm{r}}\)    
Often 2.77 2.23–3.45 < 0.001**
Sometimes 0.38 0.30–0.47 < 0.001**
  1. Model is adjusted for woman’s age, education, ethnicity, employment and place of residence (urban, rural). Age variable is presented in years
  2. aOR, adjusted Odds Ratio. 95% CI, 95% Confidence Interval. \(^{\mathrm{r}}\)Reference group. *p-value \(<0.05\). **p-value \(<0.005\)