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Table 2 Odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios in favor of tobacco use for child marriage and other covariates

From: Child marriage and risky health behaviors: an analysis of tobacco use among early adult and early middle-aged women in India

  Unadjusted Adjusted
Early adulthood Early middle age All Early adulthood Early middle age All
Child marriage 1.767*** 1.390*** 1.644*** 1.265*** 1.168*** 1.222***
(1.685, 1.853) (1.322, 1.462) (1.588, 1.702) (1.200, 1.333) (1.105, 1.235) (1.177, 1.268)
Age     1.070*** 1.045*** 1.059***
    (1.061, 1.078) (1.035, 1.054) (1.055, 1.062)
Education       
 No education     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Primary     0.797*** 0.776*** 0.793***
    (0.737, 0.862) (0.719, 0.838) (0.749, 0.841)
 Secondary     0.450*** 0.464*** 0.450***
    (0.411, 0.492) (0.425, 0.507) (0.422, 0.481)
 Higher     0.139*** 0.208*** 0.158***
    (0.098, 0.196) (0.134, 0.322) (0.121, 0.206)
Household size       
 3 or less     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 4 to 5     0.916* 0.994 0.970
    (0.832, 1.008) (0.912, 1.082) (0.912, 1.032)
 6 to 8     0.867*** 1.034 0.959
    (0.786, 0.956) (0.946, 1.130) (0.898, 1.023)
 9 or more     0.900* 1.105 0.992
    (0.794, 1.019) (0.974, 1.255) (0.906, 1.086)
Wealth index quintiles       
  1st (Poorest)     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 2nd (Poorer)     0.683*** 0.797*** 0.733***
    (0.639, 0.730) (0.746, 0.852) (0.698, 0.769)
 3rd (Middle)     0.515*** 0.579*** 0.542***
    (0.472, 0.562) (0.535, 0.627) (0.509, 0.576)
 4th (Richer)     0.333*** 0.443*** 0.385***
    (0.294, 0.378) (0.396, 0.496) (0.353, 0.420)
 5th (Richest)     0.167*** 0.241*** 0.205***
    (0.132, 0.212) (0.203, 0.286) (0.179, 0.236)
Religion       
 Hindu     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Muslim     1.244*** 1.330*** 1.287***
    (1.109, 1.395) (1.197, 1.477) (1.184, 1.400)
 Christian     0.703** 0.654*** 0.677***
    (0.534, 0.926) (0.529, 0.808) (0.562, 0.815)
 Sikh     0.054*** 0.275*** 0.181***
    (0.012, 0.238) (0.131, 0.580) (0.094, 0.349)
 Buddhist     0.691* 0.807 0.756**
    (0.466, 1.024) (0.553, 1.177) (0.573, 0.998)
 Other     1.017 1.274 1.108
    (0.768, 1.348) (0.951, 1.708) (0.889, 1.380)
Caste       
 Not backward class     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Scheduled caste     1.320*** 1.379*** 1.348***
    (1.172, 1.487) (1.237, 1.537) (1.237, 1.469)
 Scheduled tribe     1.798*** 1.746*** 1.779***
    (1.579, 2.048) (1.548, 1.969) (1.615, 1.960)
 Other backward class     0.988 1.063 1.028
    (0.887, 1.101) (0.968, 1.168) (0.953, 1.108)
Residence       
 Rural     Ref. Ref. Ref.
 Urban     1.460*** 1.299*** 1.380***
    (1.308, 1.630) (1.173, 1.439) (1.269, 1.501)
 Observations 190,551 119,402 309,953 190,069 119,281 309,681
  1. 95% confidence intervals are in parenthesis
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1
  3. Estimates are obtained using complex survey weights
  4. All models control for state fixed effects. There were no tobacco-user early-adult women in the Chandigarh and Daman & Diu territories. There were no tobacco-user early-middle-aged women in the Chandigarh territory. Observations from these areas were omitted in the respective multivariable specifications