Skip to main content

Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression models for individual and household/community predictors of intimate partner violence in Nigeria

From: Spatial distribution and predictors of intimate partner violence among women in Nigeria

Variables
n = 8968
Model 0 Model I Model II Model III
aOR[95% CI] aOR[95% CI] aOR[95% CI]
Fixed effects results
Individual-level variables     
 Age of respondent     
  15–24   RC   RC
  25–34   1.05[0.90–1.22]   1.12[0.97–1.31]
  35 and above   0.79**[0.67–0.94]   0.89[0.74–1.06]
 Women’s level of education     
  No education   RC   RC
  Primary   0.95[0.79–1.13]   0.99[0.84–1.19]
  Secondary and above   0.89[0.74–1.06]   1.05[0.87–1.27]
 Husband/Partner’s level of education     
  No education   RC   RC
  Primary   1.27*[1.05–1.53]   1.32**[1.09–1.60]
  Secondary and above   0.93[0.79–1.11]   1.04[0.87–1.24]
 Marital status     
  Currently married   RC   RC
  Cohabitating   1.13[0.87–1.48]   1.20[0.91–1.56]
  Previously married   1.72***[1.35–2.19]   1.73***[1.33–2.25]
 Working status     
  No   RC   RC
  Yes   1.30***[1.14–1.47]   1.29***[1.14–1.47]
 Ethnicity     
  Hausa   RC   RC
  Yoruba   0.70**[0.54–0.90]   1.39*[0.99–1.94]
  Igbo   1.09[0.83–1.43]   1.01[0.70–1.47]
  Others   1.52***[1.25–1.84]   1.10[0.89–1.37]
 Religion     
  Christianity   RC   RC
  Islam   0.65***[0.54–0.90]   0.57***[0.47–0.69]
  Traditionalist and others   0.52*[0.28–0.96]   0.55*[0.30–1.01]
 Parity     
  0   RC   RC
  1–3   1.49***[1.19–1.85]   1.47**[1.18–1.84]
  4 and above   1.89***[1.49–2.39]   1.78***[1.40–2.25]
 Exposure to mass media     
  No   RC   RC
  Yes   0.99[0.87–1.12]   1.14*[1.00–1.31]
Household-level     
Place of residence     
 Urban    RC RC
 Rural    0.88[0.74–1.05] 0.85[0.72–1.01]
Wealth index     
 Poorest    RC RC
 Poorer    0.82*[0.69–0.98] 0.78**[0.65–0.93]
 Middle    0.76**[0.62–0.92] 0.71**[0.58–0.87]
 Richer    0.65***[0.52–0.81] 0.61***[0.48–0.78]
 Richest    0.47***[0.36–0.62] 0.45***[0.34–0.61]
Region     
 North Central    RC RC
 North East    1.11[0.87–1.41] 1.50**[1.16–1.92]
 North West    0.31***[0.25–0.39] 0.49***[0.37–0.64]
 South East    0.94[0.73–1.21] 0.75[0.51–1.10]
 South South    1.27*[0.99–1.63] 1.01[0.78–1.31]
 South West    0.33***[0.25–0.42] 0.25***[0.18–0.34]
Sex of household head     
 Male    RC RC
 Female    1.18*[1.02–1.36] 1.01[0.86–1.20]
Community literacy level     
 Low    RC RC
 Medium    1.05[0.87–1.27] 0.89[0.73–1.09]
 High    1.04[0.82–1.33] 0.83[0.65–1.07]
Community socioeconomic status     
 Low    RC RC
 Medium    1.42*[1.03–1.96] 1.45*[1.06–2.00]
 High    0.92[0.73–1.15] 0.97[0.77–1.21]
Random effects results
 PSU Variance (95% CI) 1.23[1.06–1.44] 1.00[0.84–1.18] 0.84[0.71–1.01] 0.81[0.68–0.98]
 ICC 0.27 0.23 0.20 0.19
 LR test χ2 = 658.59, p < 0.001 χ2 = 472.39, p < 0.001 χ2 = 369.95, p < 0.001 χ2 = 342.95, p < 0.001
 Wald χ2 Reference 237.68*** 318.78*** 450.12***
Model fitness     
 Log-likelihood − 5581.21 − 5461.92 − 5422.82 − 5348.14
 AIC 11,166.42 10,961.84 10,879.64 10,764.27
 Number of clusters 1383 1383 1383 1383
  1. Weighted NDHS, 2018
  2. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  3. Model 0 is the null model, a baseline model without any determinant variable
  4. Model I is adjusted for individual-level variables (Age of respondent, women educational level, spouse educational level, marital status, currently working, ethnicity, religion, parity, and media exposure)
  5. Model II is adjusted for household/community level variables (Place of residence, wealth index, region, sex of household head, community literacy level, community socioeconomic status)
  6. Model III is the final model adjusted for individual and household/community level variables
  7. AOR, adjusted odds ratios; CI, confidence interval; RC, reference category; PSU, primary sampling unit; ICC, intra-class correlation; LR test, likelihood ratio test; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion
  8. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001