- Research article
- Open Access
Factors associated with health-related quality of life in women using path analyses: mediation effect of the adiposity traits
BMC Women's Health volume 21, Article number: 395 (2021)
The current work aimed to investigate the mediating role of adiposity traits in the relationship between eating behaviors, sleep quality, socio-demographic factors, and the health-related quality of life in women of reproductive age in northwest of Iran.
In the current cross-sectional study, a total of 278 overweight and obese women of reproductive age (20–49 y) were enrolled. Anthropometric assessments were performed. Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was used for assessment of sleep quality while Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire was used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18) was used to measure eating behaviors. Path analysis was used to test the relationships between parameters.
Age was found to be indirectly and negatively associated with mental component score (MCS) (B = − 0.040; P = 0.049) and physical component score (PCS) (B = − 0.065; P = 0.036) through mediatory effects of obesity. Additionally, education was seen to be indirectly and positively related to MCS (B = 0.529; P = 0.045) and PCS (B = 0.870; P = 0.019), respectively. On the other hand, obesity (B = 0.608; P = 0.018) and PSQI score (B = − 0.240; P = 0.034) had direct associations with MCS. Age (B = − 0.065; P = 0.036) and education (B = 0.870; P = 0.019) were also directly associated with obesity.
Obesity seemed to mediate the effects of socio-demographic parameters on HRQoL. Poor sleep quality was also related to impairment of HRQoL. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.
Obesity as one of the most vital challenges around the world has been associated with social and medical complications and is known as the epidemic of the twenty-first Century . The prevalence of obesity has increased in both developed and developing countries . In many countries, obesity is the leading modifiable risk factor for a number of diseases including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, some types of cancer, sleep apnea, stroke, liver diseases, gynecological problems, osteoarthritis, and other adverse pathological conditions . Obesity is characterized by the excessive fat accumulation in the body and results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure . The etiology of obesity is multi-factorial including a combination of environmental, biological, emotional, genetic, social, and behavioral determinants [5, 6]. Obesity is also an important health problem in Iran. The most important reason of recorded mortalities in 2002 in Iran was obesity and overweight . The prevalence of obesity was 24% for women and 18% for men in the north-west of Iran in 2006 . Men and women are different in total body fat distribution and women have a higher percentage of body fat and less lean mass and accordingly higher prevalence of obesity than men . Obesity in women in reproductive age is a risk factor for the health of women and their children. It has been shown that obese women than normal women are at a high risk for reproductive health such as infertility, and also have higher risks associated with pregnancy and birth, lower self-esteem and higher depression [10,11,12].
Quality of Life is significantly affected by the clinical status and complications of obesity. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as an individuals’ perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their expectations, goals, concerns and standards. HRQoL includes: mental, emotional, physical, and social aspects . In fact, HRQoL has two basic principles: the first part, which contains psychological, social, physical and emotional fields. The second part is subjective and is reported based on personal experiences . Many studies have focused on the effects of obesity on the HRQoL and the previous studies have shown a close negative association between the HRQoL and obesity . Several studies have shown that obese people have lower scores of HRQoL than normal-weight subjects and increased weight was associated with lower role physical, physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality, and general health scores [15,16,17]. In general, obesity reduces HRQoL and treatment of obesity improves HRQoL .
Several studies have shown that obesity is associated with common mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and lower quality of life as well, and on the other hand, weight loss can improve psychological well-being [19,20,21,22,23,24]. Additionally, researchers have suggested that psychological factors may alter eating behaviors and food choices and lead to increased intake of high energy dense foods which predispose subjects to obesity and its-related complications . Eating disorders are common especially among young women and adolescent girls . In addition, previous studies have shown that inappropriate eating behaviors can predict weight gain and obesity in women [27,28,29]. For instance, cognitive dietary restraint and disinhibited eating in overweight and obese individuals than underweight and normal weight have reported to be higher [30, 31]. Moreover, it has been revealed women have higher scores of these factors compared with men [32, 33]. Keranen et al. reported that high cognitive restraint, with low emotional eating and uncontrolled eating was associated with maintained weight loss . High score in the cognitive restraint has been associated with a reduction in energy and food intake while the loss of control over eating (high disinhibition) can cause excessive energy intake and increased body weight [27, 35].
Sleep is one of the most important human behaviors that occupies between 20 and 40% of the day . Investigations have revealed that sleep disruptions are highly prevalent in middle-aged women . On the other hand, neurologic effects of sleep deprivation can lead to increased caloric intake and obesity and there are several studies that have shown these associations [38, 39]. Sleep loss and sleep disorders due to lifestyle changes are common problems in the modern world. There are some studies that have shown sleep deprivation may result in detrimental effects on the body's endocrine system and its metabolism  and subsequently, increased risk of obesity and overweight , cardiovascular disease , and diabetes [43,44,45].
Taken together, obesity and its-related health outcomes can be influenced by a variety of factors (behavioral, environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors) which are closely inter-related. Thus, unmeasured interrelationships and high colinearity which exist between the variables under investigation limit the understanding of how all of these factors directly and indirectly may influence the association between above-mentioned factors and obesity and its-related health problems. On the other hand, usual statistical techniques such as traditional regression models which have been used in most studies focus only on the association between a limited number of predictors and a single outcome . Path analysis is an extension of multiple regression that allows researchers to assess direct and indirect effects by considering multiple independent and dependent variables simultaneously . Path analysis represents fit of a correlation matrix with a causal model that researchers want to test. In fact, a proper path analysis can provide more profound understanding of the interrelations of the variables . There is no study that has applied the path analysis and simultaneously examined the role of all these parameters in development of obesity and its consequences. So, the aim of our study was to apply path analysis in overweight and obese women to determine the direct and indirect associations of socio-demographic, eating behaviors, sleep quality and adiposity traits with health-related quality of life.
A total of 278 women in reproductive age (20–49 years) were enrolled in the current cross-sectional study from November 2017 to December 2018. The eligible participants were recruited using convenience sampling through announcements and posters placed in public areas of the city (Tabriz). Inclusion criteria targeted apparently healthy women (without any specific disease that affects diet or appetite) who had BMI > 25 kg/m2. At first, a total of 564 women applied to take part. Of these, after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 284 women were excluded. Finally, 278 adult female subjects met the inclusion criteria and were recruited in the study. A completed flow-diagram of the study is presented in Fig. 1. All of participants completed written informed consent prior to participation in this study. With maximum RMSEA of 0.1 , α = 0.05 and power of 80%, a minimum sample size (n) = 184 was calculated using statistica software, version 10. Totally, a sample of 278 participants who agreed to take part was evaluated in the current study. The protocol of the study was approved by the ethical committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (IR.TBZMED.REC.1400.294). All of information was collected through face to face interview by trained dietitians.
Anthropometric variables including height, weight, waist and hip circumference (WC and HC) were measured by an expert nutritionist. Height was measured by a stadiometer fixed to the wall with a precision of 0.5 cm, while subjects were in light clothing without shoes. Body weight was measured by a digital scale while participants were minimally clothed without shoes. WC was measured by a tape measure to the nearest 0.5 cm, at the midpoint between the last costal rib and the iliac crest without applying any pressure to the body. HC was also measured at the largest part of the hip. BMI was calculated as body weight (kg) divided by the square of height (m2). Obesity was defined as having BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2.
Sleep quality assessment
Information on sleep quality was collected using a self-administered Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire . Validity and reliability of the questionnaire have been previously confirmed in Iran . This scale was a 19-item self-report questionnaire which includes seven sub-scales containing: sleep latency, sleep quality, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep duration, daytime dysfunction, use of sleeping medications and sleep disturbances . Each component was rated from 0 to 3 and global score computed by summing the seven sub-scales. The total score ranged from 0 to 21 points and the higher scores indicated poor sleep quality.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment
HRQoL was evaluated by a short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, with prior evidence of validity and reliability among Iranian population . This self-administered questionnaire which consists of 36 items calculates eight subscales: physical functioning (10 items), role physical (four items), bodily pain (two items) and general health perception (five items), role emotional (three items), vitality (four items), mental health (five items) and social functioning (two items) [52, 53]. Scores of the first four dimensions were summed to create the physical component score (PCS), whereas the last four were summed to form the mental component score (MCS). Scores for each dimension ranged from 0 to 100, high scores showing a better health status in people . Subjects whose scores were less than 66.7 percent were considered poor HRQoL.
Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18)
TFEQ-R18 is a common instrument to study eating behavioral pattern in obese people, as well as for predicting weight loss in clinical patients and monitoring progress throughout treatment [54, 55]. TFEQ-R18 is a shortened and revised version of the original 51-item TFEQ . TFEQ-R18 measures 3 different aspects of eating behavior: uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and cognitive restraint. Cognitive restraint is defined as conscious restriction of food intake to control body weight (six items). Emotional eating refers to the inability to resist emotional cues (three items); while uncontrolled eating is defined as tendency to eat more than usual due to a loss of control over intake accompanied by subjective feelings of hunger (nine items) . Subjects were requested to respond to 18 questions on a 4-point response scale (1–4). Then, items scores were summated into subscale scores and the higher scores in the scales were indicative of greater uncontrolled, cognitive restraint, or emotional eating. Validity and reliability of this questionnaire were previously confirmed for using in Iran. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for this questionnaire in Iranian subjects was 0.699 which was very close to the acceptable level .
Normal distribution of data was checked by descriptive measures such as coefficients of skewness and kurtosis, mean and standard deviation. Data on quantitative and qualitative characteristics were expressed as the mean ± SD and frequency (%), respectively. Path analysis was run to comprehensively investigate the associations of socio-demographic, sleep quality, eating behaviors and health-related quality of life which has been hypothesized to be associated with obesity. In fact, path analysis is an extension of multiple regressions which allows simultaneous analysis of relationships between dependent variables as well as between independent variables and dependent variables. Maximum Likelihood Estimation Procedure (ML) was used to estimate regression coefficients. The model fitness was evaluated using multiple fit indices including: comparative fit index (CFI) > 0.90 , Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) ≥ 0.90 , chi-square test (χ2/degrees of freedom (df) ratio < 5 , standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) < 0.08  and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) ≤ 0.08 . The statistical analyses were performed using STATA V.15.0. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
A summary of the demographic characteristics of study participants is shown in Table 1. The mean age and BMI of subjects were 31.40 ± 10.89 years and 29.19 ± 4.14 kg/m2, respectively. In terms of marital status, 51.4% of women were married, 2.9% were widows, 2.9% were divorced and 42.8% were single. Moreover, the majority (72.3%) of participants were unemployed and about 27.7% of were employed. Table 2 provides the descriptive statistics for the Three-Factor Eating Questionaire-R18 scores, sleep quality, and physical and mental component score of the Short Form-36. In the overall population, the scores of the two main domains, PCS and MCS, were 75.0% and 71.6%, respectively. Thus, majority of participants had better quality of life.
The mean of PSQI global score was 6.38 which indicating poor sleep quality (PSQI total score of > 5 is indicative of impaired sleep quality). Mean scores for the TFEQ-R18 factors were 15.72 for cognitive restraint, 20.03 for uncontrolled and 6.58 for emotional. These higher scores of these scales denote higher levels of uncontrolled, cognitive restraint, or emotional eating. Significant direct and indirect paths of the association between socio-demographic, sleep quality, eating behaviors, health-related quality of life and obesity among women are presented in Table 3. Among socio-demographic parameters, age was found to be indirectly and negatively associated with MCS (B = − 0.040; P = 0.049) and PCS (B = − 0.065; P = 0.036) through mediatory effects of obesity. Additionally, education was seen to be indirectly and positively related to MCS (B = 0.529; P = 0.045) and PCS (B = 0.870; P = 0.019), respectively. On the other hand, obesity (B = 0.608; P = 0.018) and PSQI score (B = − 0.240; P = 0.034) had positive and negative direct associations with MCS, respectively. Age (B = − 0.065; P = 0.036) and education (B = 0.870; P = 0.019) were also directly associated with obesity. Presented model provided a good fit (χ2/df = 1.59; CFI = 0.931; TLI = 900; RMSEA (95% CI) = 0.066 (0.018–0.104); SRMR = 0.040). Path analysis diagram with standardized estimates illustrating the total effects of socio-demographic, sleep quality, eating behaviors, and obesity on health-related quality of life is shown in Fig. 2.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediating role of adiposity traits in the relationship between eating behaviors, sleep quality, socio-demographic factors, and the health-related quality of life by path analysis in women of reproductive age. In the current work, we found that obesity mediates the association of age and education with health-related quality of life (MCS and PCS). On the other hand, a positive direct association between obesity and MCS was found. Higher PSQI score was directly and negatively related to MCS. Unexpectedly, a direct positive relationship between education and obesity among women was also identified.
Our finding regarding an indirect negative association between age and physical and psychological dimensions of HRQoL suggested that younger people had better health condition than older people. Interestingly, we found a direct positive association between obesity and MCS which it could be concluded that mental aspect of health-related quality of life was favorably influenced by overweight (mean of BMI = 29.1). It should be taken into account that in Iran similar to other west Asian countries which mostly are Muslim, covering of body particularly in women is a law which can result in better body satisfaction . In this regard, there are some reports among women that have shown being overweight but not obese is perceived ideal and desirable body image . On the other hand, in some Asian cultures, fatness is still considered as a symbol of wealth while leanness is perceived as poor . Interestingly, it seemed that being overweight in the current population that were young and in reproductive age (mean age = 31 years), had a protective role to decrease mental aspect of health-related quality of life. Thus, since in the present study, age was inversely related to the obesity, it is not surprising that being overweight could indirectly mediate the negative association of age with mental health-related quality of life. However, no significant association was found between age and physical health domain of SF 36. Previous studies have shown that obesity is related to worse HRQoL among different populations, particularly in the physical dimensions and among female subjects . These studies have also revealed that higher degrees of obesity are related to greater impairment of HRQoL which might be due to increased joint pain and decreased physical activity . For example, the results of 2 large prospective cohorts of US women indicated that weight gain during a 4-year period was associated with worse HRQoL in the dimensions of physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, bodily pain, general health, and vitality . Another cohort study by Molero and et al. which examined impact of obesity on HRQoL using the SF-36 reported an adverse effect of obesity on HRQoL, influencing the physical dimension more significantly than the psychosocial dimension . On the other hand, it has been shown that lower HRQoL is significantly related to higher age . Nevertheless, other studies have proposed a U-shaped relationship across the course of life, with a drop in quality of life and wellbeing in oldest age groups .
Noticeably, we found the positive indirect associations of education with physical and mental subscales of HRQoL. Additionally, a direct positive relationship between education and obesity was also observed in the current research. In agreement with our results, some studies in low-income countries have shown that a higher education seems to be related to a higher likelihood of being obese . However, it appeared that the association of educational attainment with obesity might rely on the level of development in the country, such that negative relationships were more common in developed countries . In line with our findings, a systematic review reported that participants with higher levels of education in developing countries were more likely to be obese . Lifestyle factors which are influenced by education and other socio-economic parameters may be the keys for understanding the education-obesity relationship . Another main finding in the present research was the direct negative association between PSQI score and MCS. In other words, poor sleep quality was related to impairment of health-related quality of life. A wealth of evidence has shown that insufficient and poor-quality sleep may contribute to increasing health burden. The result of current study pertaining to the associations between sleep quality and MCS study are in accordance with previous studies that have reported sleep disorders are associated with impairment of HRQoL . Additionally, in our study, subjects who were overweight or obese had a higher global PSQI score which was in line with previous findings that the PSQI score was correlated with obesity in female African Americans. It seems that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may through alterations in hormonal status such as increase in ghrelin level and decrease in leptin level lead to obesity, metabolic dysregulation and obesity-related complications .
Several limitations of the current study should also be addressed; first of all, the cross-sectional design of the current study makes impossible causal inferences and large longitudinal studies are needed to infer true causal associations. Moreover, dietary factors might influence studied parameters and it would be better to study their associations with desired variables. Since dietary behaviors and other lifestyle factors in Tabriz may vary from those in other parts of the country, and on the other hand, due to using convenience sampling instead of random sampling method in this research, our results cannot be generalized to all Iranian population. Nevertheless, this study is the first to evaluate the association between eating behaviors, sleep quality, socio-demographic factors, adiposity traits and the health-related quality of life simultaneously by path analysis which provides important information for decision makers on health issues and may be useful for effective primary-prevention strategies for obesity.
In summary, the findings of the present study suggested an indirect association between some of the socio-economic factors (age and education) and health related quality of life (MCS and PCS). Additionally, a direct relationship between obesity and outcome parameter (MCS) was revealed. Poor sleep quality was also related to impairment of health-related quality of life. Prospective studies are warranted to clarify and confirm the possible associations of this kind.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Body mass index
Health related quality of life
Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36
Mental component score
Physical component score
James PT, Rigby N, Leach R, Force IOT. The obesity epidemic, metabolic syndrome and future prevention strategies. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004;11(1):3–8.
Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Dietz WH, Bowman BA, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The spread of the obesity epidemic in the United States, 1991–1998. JAMA. 1999;282(16):1519–22.
Wyatt SB, Winters KP, Dubbert PM. Overweight and obesity: prevalence, consequences, and causes of a growing public health problem. Am J Med Sci. 2006;331(4):166–74.
Gonzalez-Muniesa P, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Hu FB, Despres JP, Matsuzawa Y, Loos RJF, et al. Obesity. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17034.
Frühbeck G, Toplak H, Woodward E, Yumuk V, Maislos M, Oppert J-M. Obesity: the gateway to ill health-an EASO position statement on a rising public health, clinical and scientific challenge in Europe. Obes Facts. 2013;6(2):117–20.
Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. 2014;384(9945):766–81.
Behan D, Cox S, Lin Y. Obesity and its relation to mortality and morbidity costs. Society of Actuaries. December 2010; published January 2011. 2014.
Dastgiri S, Mahdavi R, TuTunchi H, Faramarzi E. Prevalence of obesity, food choices and socio-economic status: a cross-sectional study in the north-west of Iran. Public Health Nutr. 2006;9(8):996–1000.
Price RA. Genetics and common obesities: background, current status, strategies, and future prospects 2002. pp 73–94.
Shah DK, Ginsburg ES. Bariatric surgery and fertility. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;22(3):248–54.
Weiss F, Barbuti M, Carignani G, Calderone A, Santini F, Maremmani I, Perugi G. Psychiatric aspects of obesity: a narrative review of pathophysiology and psychopathology. J Clin Med. 2020;9(8):2344. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9082344.
Puhl RM, Heuer CA. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(5):941–64. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2008.636.
Singh R, Dixit S. Health-related quality of life and health management. J Health Manag. 2010;12(2):153–72.
Tsai WL, Yang CY, Lin SF, Fang FM. Impact of obesity on medical problems and quality of life in Taiwan. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(6):557–65.
Coakley EH, Kawachi I, Manson JE, Speizer FE, Willet WC, Colditz GA. Lower levels of physical functioning are associated with higher body weight among middle-aged and older women. Int J Obes. 1998;22(10):958.
Yancy WS Jr, Olsen MK, Westman EC, Bosworth HB, Edelman D. Relationship between obesity and health-related quality of life in men. Obes Res. 2002;10(10):1057–64.
Doll HA, Petersen SEK, Stewart-Brown SL. Obesity and physical and emotional well-being: associations between body mass index, chronic illness, and the physical and mental components of the SF-36 questionnaire. Obes Res. 2000;8(2):160–70.
Bray GA. Pharmacological treatment of obesity1998. 953–75 p.
Palinkas LA, Wingard DL, Barrett-Connor E. Depressive symptoms in overweight and obese older adults: a test of the “jolly fat” hypothesis. J Psychosom Res. 1996;40(1):59–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(95)00542-0.
Fontaine KR, Cheskin LJ, Barofsky I. Health-related quality of life in obese persons seeking treatment. J Fam Pract. 1996;43(3):265–71.
Rippe JM, Price JM, Hess SA, Kline G, DeMers KA, Damitz S, et al. Improved psychological well-being, quality of life, and health practices in moderately overweight women participating in a 12-week structured weight loss program. Obes Res. 1998;6(3):208–18.
Karlsson J, Taft C, Sjöström L, Torgerson JS, Sullivan M. Psychosocial functioning in the obese before and after weight reduction: construct validity and responsiveness of the Obesity-related Problems scale. Int J Obes. 2003;27(5):617.
de Zwaan M, Lancaster KL, Mitchell JE, Howell LM, Monson N, Roerig JL, Crosby RD. Health-related quality of life in morbidly obese patients: effect of gastric bypass surgery. Obes Surg. 2002;12(6):773–80. https://doi.org/10.1381/096089202320995547.
Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, Lyketsos CG, Eaton WW. Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;158(12):1139–47.
Bellisle F. Why should we study human food intake behaviour? Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2003;13(4):189–93.
Hautala LA, Junnila J, Helenius H, Väänänen AM, Liuksila PR, Räihä H, et al. Towards understanding gender differences in disordered eating among adolescents. J Clin Nurs. 2008;17(13):1803–13.
Provencher V, Drapeau V, Tremblay A, Després JP, Lemieux S. Eating behaviors and indexes of body composition in men and women from the Quebec family study. Obes Res. 2003;11(6):783–92.
Hays NP, Bathalon GP, McCrory MA, Roubenoff R, Lipman R, Roberts SB. Eating behavior correlates of adult weight gain and obesity in healthy women aged 55–65 y. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(3):476–83.
Baños RM, Cebolla A, Etchemendy E, Felipe S, Rasal P, Botella C. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children (DEBQ-C) for use with Spanish children. NUTR HOSP. 2011;26(4).
Anglé S, Engblom J, Eriksson T, Kautiainen S, Saha MT, Lindfors P, et al. Three factor eating questionnaire-R18 as a measure of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of young Finnish females. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009;6(1):41.
Jáuregui-Lobera I, García-Cruz P, Carbonero-Carreño R, Magallares A, Ruiz-Prieto I. Psychometric properties of Spanish version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (Tfeq-Sp) and its relationship with some eating-and body image-related variables. Nutrients. 2014;6(12):5619–35.
Lesdéma A, Fromentin G, Daudin JJ, Arlotti A, Vinoy S, Tome D, et al. Characterization of the three-factor eating questionnaire scores of a young French cohort. Appetite. 2012;59(2):385–90.
Bellisle F, Dalix AM, Airinei G, Hercberg S, Péneau S. Influence of dietary restraint and environmental factors on meal size in normal-weight women. A laboratory study. Appetite. 2009;53(3):309–13.
Keränen AM, Savolainen MJ, Reponen AH, Kujari ML, Lindeman SM, Bloigu RS, et al. The effect of eating behavior on weight loss and maintenance during a lifestyle intervention. Prev Med. 2009;49(1):32–8.
Fogelholm M, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Oja P. Eating control and physical activity as determinants of short-term weight maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet among obese women. Int J Obes. 1999;23(2):203.
Sadock BJ. Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry, Edited by Grebb JA, Pataki CS, Sussman N. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
Monterrosa-Castro A, Romero-Pérez I, Marrugo-Flórez M, Fernández-Alonso AM, Chedraui P, Pérez-López FR. Quality of life in a large cohort of mid-aged Colombian women assessed using the Cervantes Scale. Menopause. 2012;19(8):924–30.
Patel SR, Hu FB. Short sleep duration and weight gain: a systematic review. Obesity. 2008;16(3):643–53.
Bawazeer NM, Al-Daghri NM, Valsamakis G, Al-Rubeaan KA, Sabico SLB, Huang TTK, et al. Sleep duration and quality associated with obesity among Arab children. Obesity. 2009;17(12):2251–3.
Spiegel K, Leproult R, Van Cauter E. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet. 1999;354(9188):1435–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01376-8.
Nielsen LS, Danielsen KV, Sørensen TIA. Short sleep duration as a possible cause of obesity: critical analysis of the epidemiological evidence. Obes Rev. 2011;12(2):78–92.
Knutson KL. Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24(5):731–43.
Cappuccio FP, D'elia L, Strazzullo P, Miller MA. Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes care. 2009.
Björkelund C, Bondyr-Carlsson D, Lapidus L, Lissner L, Månsson J, Skoog I, et al. Sleep disturbances in midlife unrelated to 32-year diabetes incidence: the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(11):2739–44.
Newman AB, Spiekerman CF, Lefkowitz D, Manolio T, Reynolds CF, John R. Daytime sleepiness predicts mortality and cardiovascular disease in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;48(2):115–23.
Jeon J. The strengths and limitations of the statistical modeling of complex social phenomenon: focusing on SEM, path analysis, or multiple regression models. Int J Econ Manag Eng. 2015;9(5):1634–42.
Stage FK, Carter HC, Nora A. Path analysis: an introduction and analysis of a decade of research. J Educ Res. 2004;98(1):5–13.
Hu L-t, M Bentler P. Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives1999. 1–55 p, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.
Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF III, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989;28(2):193–213.
Mohammad GMN, Naseri P, Omraninezhad Z, Shayan Z. The reliability and validity of the Persian version of Pittsburgh sleep quality index in Iranian People. Avicenna J Neuropsychophysiol. 2017;4(3):95–102. https://doi.org/10.32598/ajnpp.4.3.95.
Montazeri A, Goshtasebi AZ, Vahdaninia M, Gandek B. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36): translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Qual Life Res. 2005;14(3):875–82.
Duval K, Marceau P, Perusse L, Lacasse Y. An overview of obesity-specific quality of life questionnaires. Obes Rev. 2006;7(4):347–60.
Ware JE, Keller SD, Kosinski M. SF-36 physical and mental health summary scales: Health Assessment Lab Boston; 1994.
Bond MJ, McDowell AJ, Wilkinson JY. The measurement of dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an examination of the factor structure of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Int J Obes. 2001;25(6):900.
Harden CJ, Corfe BM, Richardson JC, Dettmar PW, Paxman JR. Body mass index and age affect Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores in male subjects. Nutr Res. 2009;29(6):379–82.
Stunkard AJ, Messick S. The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res. 1985;29(1):71–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(85)90010-8.
Group FLVSFS. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 is able to distinguish among different eating patterns in a general population. J Nutr. 2004;134(9):2372–80.
Mostafavi S-A, Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Eshraghian MR, Hosseini S, Chamari M, et al. The Reliability and validity of the Persian Version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-R18) in Overweight and Obese Females. Iran J Psychiatry. 2017;12(2):100.
Weston R, Gore PA Jr. A brief guide to structural equation modeling. Couns Psychol. 2006;34(5):719–51.
Rastmanesh R, Gluck ME, Shadman Z. Comparison of body dissatisfaction and cosmetic rhinoplasty with levels of veil practicing in Islamic women. Int J Eat Disord. 2009;42(4):339–45. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.20613.
Holdsworth M, Gartner A, Landais E, Maire B, Delpeuch F. Perceptions of healthy and desirable body size in urban Senegalese women. Int J Obes. 2004;28(12):1561–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802739.
Paquette M-C, Raine K. Sociocultural context of women’s body image. Soc Sci Med. 2004;59(5):1047–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.12.016.
Sach TH, Barton GR, Doherty M, Muir KR, Jenkinson C, Avery AJ. The relationship between body mass index and health-related quality of life: comparing the EQ-5D, EuroQol VAS and SF-6D. Int J Obes. 2007;31(1):189.
Pan A, Kawachi I, Luo N, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB, Okereke OI. Changes in body weight and health-related quality of life: 2 cohorts of US women. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(3):254–62. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu136.
Barcones-Molero MF, Sánchez-Villegas A, Martínez-González MA, Bes-Rastrollo M, Martínez-Urbistondo M, Santabárbara J, Martínez JA. The influence of obesity and weight gain on quality of life according to the SF-36 for individuals of the dynamic follow-up cohort of the University of Navarra. Rev Clin Esp. 2018;218(8):408–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rce.2018.05.005.
Klompstra L, Ekdahl AW, Krevers B, Milberg A, Eckerblad J. Factors related to health-related quality of life in older people with multimorbidity and high health care consumption over a two-year period. BMC Geriatr. 2019;19(1):187. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1194-z.
Mroczek DK, Spiro A 3rd. Change in life satisfaction during adulthood: findings from the veterans affairs normative aging study. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005;88(1):189–202. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.11.
Dinsa GD, Goryakin Y, Fumagalli E, Suhrcke M. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2012;13(11):1067–79. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01017.x.
Devaux M, Sassi F, Church J, Cecchini M, Borgonovi F. Exploring the Relationship Between Education and Obesity. OECD Journal: Economic Studies. 2011;2011:5-, doi: https://doi.org/10.1787/eco_studies-2011-5kg5825v1k23.
León-Muñoz LM, Gutiérrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillón P, Regidor E, López-García E, Martínez-Gómez D, Graciani A, Banegas JR, Rodríguez-Artalejo F. Contribution of lifestyle factors to educational differences in abdominal obesity among the adult population. Clin Nutr. 2014;33(5):836–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2013.10.013.
Darchia N, Oniani N, Sakhelashvili I, Supatashvili M, Basishvili T, Eliozishvili M, Maisuradze L, Cervena K. Relationship between Sleep Disorders and Health Related Quality of Life-Results from the Georgia SOMNUS Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(8):1588. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081588.
Sharma S, Kavuru M. Sleep and metabolism: an overview. Int J Endocrinol. 2010;2010: 270832. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/270832.
The research protocol was approved and supported by Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Grant number: 67637).
The current work has been financially supported by a grant from Student Research Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Identifier: IR.TBZMED.REC.1400.294 and grant number: 67637). The funders had no role in designing the project.
Ethical approval and consent to participate
The study protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Reference number: IR.TBZMED.REC.1400.294). Written informed consent was obtained from all of the participants. All of the particiapnts were adults (age range 20–49 years old) and there were no minors in the study.
Consent to publication
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Khodarahmi, M., Farhangi, M.A., Khoshro, S. et al. Factors associated with health-related quality of life in women using path analyses: mediation effect of the adiposity traits. BMC Women's Health 21, 395 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01535-7
- Body mass index
- Sleep quality
- Eating behavior
- Quality of life