Skip to content

Advertisement

You're viewing the new version of our site. Please leave us feedback.

Learn more

BMC Women's Health

Open Access
Open Peer Review

This article has Open Peer Review reports available.

How does Open Peer Review work?

Use of reproductive health care services among urban migrant women in Bangladesh

BMC Women's HealthBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted201616:15

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-016-0296-4

Received: 17 June 2015

Accepted: 8 March 2016

Published: 9 March 2016

Abstract

Background

Recent internal migration flows from rural to urban areas pose challenges to women using reproductive health care services in their migratory destinations. No studies were found which examined the relationship between migration, migration-associated indicators and reproductive health care services in Bangladesh.

Methods

We analyzed the 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey (data made publically available in June 2013) of 14,191 ever-married women aged 10–59 years. Cross tabulations and logistic regression were conducted.

Results

Migrants and non-migrants did not differ significantly in their use of modern contraceptives and treatment for STI but were less likely to receive ANC even after controlling for a range of variables. Compared to non-migrants, more migrants had home births, did not take vitamin A after delivery, and had no medical exam post-birth. Migrant women being village-born (rather than urban-born) were associated with risk of diminished: use of ANC; treatment for STI; medical exam post-birth; vitamin A post-birth. Migrating for work or education (rather than other reasons) was associated with risk of diminished: use of ANC; use of modern facilities for birth; and medical exam post-birth. Each additional year lived in urban areas was associated with a greater likelihood of receiving ANC.

Conclusions

Women who migrated to urban areas in Bangladesh were significantly less likely than non-migrants to use reproductive health care services related to pregnancy care. Pro-actively identifying migrant women, especially those who originated from villages or migrated for work or education may be warranted to ensure optimal use of pregnancy-related services.

Keywords

Reproductive healthCare servicesUrbanMigrant womenBangladesh

Background

Rapid urbanization has occurred throughout low-income countries, where 80 % of the world’s largest cities are now located [1]. Such rapid urban growth largely manifests itself in the expansion of already crowded squatter settlements and slums, placing enormous strain on public resources and presenting challenges for local health authorities [2, 3]. The UN Population Division predicts a 93 % increase in the urban population of Bangladesh between 2000 and 2020 driven primarily by rural to urban migration [2, 4, 5]. These recent migration flows pose challenges to women needing reproductive health care services in their migratory destinations. Women in poor countries tend to have limited access to health care services compared to those in richer countries, and within countries, the poor have proportionately less access to health services [6]. Poor migrant women in particular, likely face discrimination as well as physical and economic insecurity, which makes them more vulnerable to reproductive health risks [7].

Studies of rural-to-urban migration often focus on the potential negative effects, physically or mentally, not only of the stress of movement and adaptation to a new and very different lifestyle, but of movement to an area with more health damaging exposures [8]. Damaging exposures may include physical and socio-cultural environments and health behaviours.

Literature on migration shows that use of health and social services for migrants is determined by their legal status and by availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of services which depend on other influences including social, cultural, structural, linguistic, gender, financial and geographical factors [6, 911]. Different beliefs and knowledge about health and illness can deter migrants from using national health services [12]. Moreover, health literacy in the sense of awareness of entitlements to care and availability of services may pose a barrier to use of services [12].

Studies have examined the relationship between migration and general health status, health vulnerability among temporary migrants, rural-urban return migration and use of family planning, urban migrants and under-five child mortality, internal migration and contraceptive knowledge and use, temporary migration and HIV/STD risks, and internal migration and use of reproductive and child health services [1320]. These studies show that health/reproductive health can be a driver or a barrier to migration through direct and indirect impacts on migration decisions [21]. Studies on the impact of migration on reproductive health show that urban migrants are disadvantaged in accessing health care services [16, 19, 22, 23].

In Bangladesh, studies on migration have focused on reasons for migration, basic characteristics of migrants, employment and income, and household living conditions [24, 25]. Some have focused on the relationship between migration and fertility and family planning, child survival, and household living conditions [17, 26]. These studies have generally used small samples, which have made it difficult to analyze the relationships between key factors comprehensively. No studies were found which examined the relationship between migration, migration-associated indicators and reproductive health care services in Bangladesh. Our study intended to begin to fill this gap.

The objectives of our study were to answer the following research questions: (1) What is the relationship between migration (internal migrant/non-migrant) and Bangladeshi urban women’s use of reproductive health care services [modern contraceptive use, antenatal care (ANC), modern facilities used for birth, medical exam post-birth, Vitamin A post-birth and STI treatment]? (2) What is the relationship between migration indicators (place of birth, length of time living in current place of residence, reasons for migration) and use of these services among internal migrant women in urban Bangladesh?

Methods

We performed analyses of cross-sectional survey data from the 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey (UHS) made publically available on June 24, 2013 [27, 28]. Our sample of 14,191 women was drawn from the sample of all ever-married women aged 10–59 living in separate households in urban areas of Bangladesh (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1

Flow chart 1: Sample taken from the 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey1. 1National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Measure Evaluation, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) and Association for Community and Population research(ACPR). 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Dhaka: Bangladesh and Chapel Hill, NC, USA, 2008

We defined ‘migrant’ as those who had not always lived in their current location. We performed logistic regression analyses of factors affecting selected reproductive health care services. Reproductive health care services selected included modern contraceptive use, ANC received prior to last birth, modern facilities used at birth, medical exam post-birth, receiving Vitamin A post-birth and treatment sought for STIs.

The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Faculty of Medicine of McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We obtained our data following approval from the University of North Carolina (UNC). Data were de-nominalized by UNC prior to use. All respondents had provided verbal informed consent to be interviewed prior to completing the 2006 Bangladesh UHS.

Results

Relationship between migrant status (migrant/non-migrant) of women and their use of reproductive health care services

Table 1 shows the socio-demographic characteristics of Bangladeshi urban women by migration status (n = 8921 migrants, 5270 non-migrants). Compared with non-migrants, more migrant women (p = .000 for all comparisons) were aged 19–49 (85.2 vs. 84.2 %), were currently married (83.1 vs. 71.9 %), were married as children (72.2 vs. 67.9 %), had not attended school (36.7 vs. 27.5 %), were living in urban slums (51.5 vs. 41.9 %), had migrated from villages (83.9 vs.11.8 %), and lived in urban locations of Dhaka (44.0 vs. 30.5 %), and Chittagong (26.8 vs. 30.4 %) divisions.
Table 1

Selected characteristics of Bangladeshi urban women by migrant status (%)

Characteristics

Migrant (N = 8921)

Non-migrant (N = 5270)

Age*

 ≤18

7.4

8.9

 19–24

24.5

28.5

 25–29

16.5

17.0

 30–34

14.5

13.4

 35–39

13.3

11.6

 40–44

10.4

8.9

 45–49

6.0

4.8

 50–54

5.1

4.8

 55–59

2.2

2.1

Marital status*

 Currently married

83.1

71.9

 Separated/deserted/widowed/divorced

10.4

10.3

 Never married

6.5

18.1

Age at first marriage <18 years*

N = 8343

N = 4317

72.2

67.9

Not attended school*

36.7

27.5

Muslim Religion**

90.1

91.8

Not working currently*

67.2

76.4

Division (Administrative regions in descending order of density of health care facilities)* a

 Dhaka

44.0

30.5

  No. of all secondary & tertiary

  hospitals = 40, no. of public hospital

  beds = 6655; population/bed = 6900

 Rajshahi

7.4

15.1

  No. of all secondary & tertiary

  hospitals = 26, no. of public hospital

  beds = 4650; population/bed = 7621

 Chittagong

26.8

30.4

  No. of all secondary & tertiary

  hospitals = 17, no. of public hospital

  beds = 3550; population/bed = 8002

 Khulna

12.9

14.1

  No. all secondary & tertiary

  hospitals = 16, no. of public hospital

  beds = 2015; population/bed = 8536

 Sylhet

4.8

3.1

  No. of all secondary & tertiary

  hospitals = 10, no. of public hospital

  beds = 1826; population/bed = 5093

 Barisal

4.2

6.7

  No. of all secondary & tertiary

  hospitals = 08, no. of public hospital

  beds = 1370; population/bed = 7010

Place of current residence*

 Urban slum

51.5

41.9

 Urban non-slum

38.1

40.7

 District town

10.4

17.3

Origin of birth*

 City corporation

2.9

63.7

 District town

9.2

22.8

 Other town

2.7

1.0

 Village

83.9

11.8b

 Abroad

1.3

0.6

Illness and healthcare decision making

 Experience of any serious illness in last year*

21.4

18.0

 Person who makes final decisions about health care*

N = 7688

N = 3955

  Respondent

24.3

26.8

  Spouse

33.5

29.3

  Respondent and spouse jointly

32.1

29.6

  Someone else

4.5

6.5

  Respondent and someone else jointly

5.6

7.8

 Perceived security of area*

  Very safe

40.2

46.4

  Somewhat safe

55.5

49.0

  Unsafe & very unsafe

4.4

4.6

STI symptoms**

 Itching in vaginal area

14.8

13.0

 Genital soreness

3.7

2.7

Sexual violence

 Forced to have sexual intercourse

N = 7412

N = 3790

19.3

19.9

aGovernment of Bangladesh, DGHS, Health Bulletin 2012: Secondary and tertiary level health care facilities in Bangladesh

bPossible explanations: (i) permanently living in cities but born in villages to get support from relatives staying at villages by mother; (ii) This may be due to definitional constraints of ‘urban’. Current place of urban residence might have been regarded as a village at the time respondents were born. For this we examined the length of years lived by both migrant and non-migrant women in the current place of residence considering the current age of the respondents

*Group comparisons by χ2, p = 0.000; ** p ≤ 0.02

Migrant and non-migrants differed in terms of RH care services received (Table 2). Compared to non-migrants, more migrant women (p = .000 for all comparisons): did not receive ANC during their last pregnancy (29.3 vs. 15.1 %), had home births more frequently (75.8 vs. 63.5 %), did not have a medical exam post-birth (70.3 vs 57.9 %), and did not take vitamin A post-birth (71.0 vs 65.2 %). Treatment sought for STI symptoms within the last 6 months was lower for migrants (40.9 vs. 44.6 %, p = .003).
Table 2

Reproductive health care services of Bangladeshi urban women by migrant status (%)

RH care services

Migrant (N = 8921)

Non-migrant (N = 5270)

Family Planning

 Any modern method of family planning (Pill, condom, injection, IUD, female sterilization, male sterilization, implant)

N = 4193

N = 2157

88.2

89.5

 Sources of current method**

N = 3697

N = 1930

  Public sector: Govt. services

21.5

24.2

  NGOs

18.6

18.2

  Private medical: hospital/clinic, pharmacy, qualified doctor, traditional doctor

3.5

3.6

  Shop, relative/friend

51.3

51.7

  Others

6.0

3.9

  Don’t know

2.6

2.0

 No antenatal care (ANC) at last pregnancy*

N = 3421

N = 1762

29.3

15.1

 Place of delivery*

N = 3421

N = 1762

  Home (own, parents, in-laws, others)

75.8

63.5

  Govt. (hospital, upzila health complex, MCWC-maternal and child welfare centers)

11.1

16.6

  Private clinic & NGO

12.9

19.9

  Other

0.2

0.0

 No medical check after birth*

70.3

57.9

 Mother not taken Vitamin A after delivery*

71.0

65.2

 Treatment sought for STIs within last 6 months** a

N = 2595

N = 1335

40.9 %

44.6 %

*Group comparisons by χ2, p = .000; **Group comparisons by χ2, p ≤ 0.03

aThe frequencies of women who sought treatment for STIs in this table account for seven symptoms listed in the survey, and are therefore greater than the frequencies in Table 1, which account for only two symptoms

Table 3 shows the association of migration status (migrant/non-migrant) with reproductive health care services controlling for a range of variables. Migrants and non-migrants did not differ significantly in their use of modern contraceptives and treatment for STI symptoms. However, compared to non-migrants, migrants continued to be less likely to receive ANC [OR = 0.48 (95 % CI 0.41, 0.56)], to give birth in modern facilities [OR = 0.58 (0.50, 0.67)], to not have a medical exam post-birth [OR = 0.63 (0.55, 0.71)], and to take vitamin A post-birth [OR = 0.83 (0.73, 0.94)].
Table 3

Association of migration status with reproductive health care services used controlling for group differences (N = 14,191)

Variables

Coefficient

Odds ratio

95 % C.I.

Level of Sig.

Lower

Upper

Current use of modern contraceptives by married women (N = 6350a)b

Migrant women

−.12

.89

.75

1.06

.190

ANC used at last pregnancy (N = 5183a)b

Migrant women

−.73

.48

.41

.56

.000

Treatment sought for STIs (N = 3930a)c

Migrant women

−.09

.91

.795

1.05

.193

Modern facilities used for birth (N = 5183a)b

Migrant women

−.55

.58

.50

.67

.000

Medical check after birth (N = 5183a)b

Migrant women

−.47

.63

.55

.71

.000

Vitamin A after birth (N = 5183a)b

Migrant women

−.19

.83

.73

.94

.004

aLower than N = 14,191 due to missing data; of all women aged 10–59 years, 7.3 % (of 14,191) were past the reproductive span (50–59 years), therefore use of reproductive health care services might not be applicable to this age group

bControlling for current age, Muslim religion, working currently, attended school, slum residence, health care decision by the respondents with or without other, perceived security of the area

cControlling for current age, Muslim religion, working currently, attended school, urban slum as place of current residence

Relationship between migration indicators and use of reproductive health services among internal migrants to urban areas in Bangladesh

Table 4 shows migration indicators associated with use of reproductive health care services among migrant women only, controlling for a range of other variables. Being village-born (rather than urban-born) was significantly associated with less likely: use of ANC [OR 0.73 (0.57, 0.93)], treatment of STI symptoms [OR 0.75 (0.60, 0.93)], medical exam post-birth [OR 0.65 (0.53, 0.81)], and vitamin A post-birth [OR 0.70 (0.57, 0.85)]. Migrating for work or education (rather than any other reasons) was responsible for less likely: use of ANC [OR 0.83 (0.69, 0.99)], use of modern facilities for birth [OR 0.75 (0.59, 0.95)], and receiving a medical exam post-birth [OR 0.67 (0.54, 0.82)]. Years lived in urban areas by the respondent had a significant beneficial effect on ANC only [OR 1.04 (1.02, 1.06)].
Table 4

Factors associated with use of reproductive health care services among migrant women only (N = 8921)

Variables

Coefficient

Odds ratio

95 % C.I.

Level of Sig.

Lower

Upper

Currently modern contraception used by married women (N = 4193a)b

 Length of years lived

−.01

.99

.98

1.01

.233

 Born in villages

.01

1.14

.88

1.46

.322

 Migrated for work, employment &education

−.17

.84

.67

1.06

.148

ANC attended during last pregnancy (N = 3421a)b

 Length of years lived

.04

1.04

1.02

1.06

.000

 Born in villages

−.32

.73

.57

.93

.010

 Migrated for work, employment & education

−.19

.83

.69

1.00

.047

Treatment sought for STIs (N = 2595a)c

 Length of years lived

.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

.099

 Born in villages

−.29

.75

.59

.93

.011

 Migrated for work, employment &education

.14

1.15

.96

1.39

.140

Modern facilities used for delivery of birth (N = 3421a)b

 Length of years lived

−.01

.99

.98

1.01

.439

 Born in villages

−.45

.64

.51

.80

.000

 Migrated for work, employment & education

−.29

.75

.59

.95

.016

Medical check after birth (N = 3421a)b

 Length of years lived

−.00

1.00

.98

1.01

.844

 Born in villages

−.43

.65

.53

.81

.000

 Migrated for work, employment & education

−.41

.67

.54

.82

.000

Vitamin A after birth (N = 3421a)b

 Length of years lived

.01

1.01

1.00

1.03

.088

 Born in villages

−.36

.70

.57

.85

.000

 Migrated for work, employment & education

−.14

.87

.72

1.06

.167

aN is less than 8921 due to missing data; of all women aged 10–59 years, 7.3 % (of 14,191) were past the reproductive span (50–59 years), therefore use of reproductive health care services might not be applicable to this age group

bControlling for length of years lived, born in villages, migrated for work, employment and education, current age, Muslim religion, working currently, attended school, urban slum as place of current residence, healthcare decision by somehow respondent, and safe community security

cControlling for Length of months lived, born in villages, migrated for work, employment and education, current age, Muslim religion, working currently, attended school, urban slum as place of current residence

Discussion

Bangladesh is facing a rapid increase in its urban migrant population. This poses significant challenges for the country to respond to their health service needs. Difficulties in reaching migrant women to offer reproductive health services could become a barrier in the country’s progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). To date, studies on migration in Bangladesh have focused mainly on reasons for migration and basic characteristics of migrants. Some have examined the relationship between migration and fertility and family planning, child survival, and household living conditions [17, 26]. Ours is the first study known to us which looks at the relationship between migration and use of reproductive health care services.

Our study demonstrates that there are significant differences in use of reproductive health care services between urban migrant and non-migrant women in Bangladesh. We found urban migrant women to be vulnerable given their more limited use of reproductive health care services than non-migrants, with the exception of using modern contraception, which migrant women living in slums were more likely to do. Recently (October 14, 2014) disseminated limited preliminary findings of the 2013 Bangladesh UHS showed: (i) the contraception prevalence rate to be highest in urban slums and lowest in non-slums; (ii) only half of the women living in slums received ANC from medically trained providers; and (iii) very few home deliveries were attended by medically trained providers in three urban locations – city corporation slum, non-slum and other urban [29]. Our study shows that there are virtually no differences for use of modern contraception among migrant and non-migrant women. This finding might be attributed to easy access to contraceptives, family-planning awareness raised by non-governmental organizations, and a lack of space in urban housing. On the other hand, migrant women reported seeking treatment for STI symptoms less than non-migrant women, although less than half of each group sought care. It is possible that women experiencing symptoms of STIs might think that they need not seek medical attention due to a lack of knowledge and/or the stigma attached to STIs. Thus, policy makers should implement measures to provide both migrant and non-migrant women with equal but increased access to health care services as well as sexual health education.

Of the three migrant indicators examined, being village-born (rather than urban-born) was significantly associated with less use of health services in four of six services examined; migrating for work or education (rather than any other reasons) was responsible for less health care use in three of the six services examined. However, years lived in urban areas had a significant beneficial effect on ANC. This increase in use may be the result of greater exposure to other women who use the service or to messages about the benefits of ANC. On the other hand, lower use of other pregnancy-related services may be the result of a limited supply of health services including maternal health outreach programs for women originating from rural areas. Social prejudice against modern and established health facilities may also contribute to the lower use of such services.

The findings of our study may be applicable to countries with a similar economic profile to Bangladesh such as Cambodia, Kenya, or Cameroon. The average amount of disposable income available to persons residing in these countries may explain differences in access to and use of reproductive health care services. In addition, poverty often forces people to move in search of work and leads to rural-to-urban migration [30]. Expanded trade, and climate change are also driving increased mobility in these countries.

Strengths and limitations

Our study is drawn from a large and representative data set covering all urban areas in Bangladesh, the result of the first survey of its kind on urban health in Bangladesh. We explored a range of major reproductive health service components as they relate to migration indicators, a field of inquiry previously underexplored in Bangladesh. However, our study was not exempt from limitations, the most important of which was the use of existing data rather than gathering primary data in which questions more closely related to our research questions could have been asked of participants.

Conclusions

Bangladeshi women who migrated to urban areas in Bangladesh were significantly less likely than non-migrants to use reproductive health care services related to pregnancy care: ANC; giving birth in modern facilities; receiving a medical exam post-birth; and receiving vitamin A post-birth. These women also tended towards less use of modern family planning methods and treatment for STI symptoms, compared to non-migrants. However, migrant women who had lived in urban areas longer were more likely to use ANC. The reproductive health of urban migrant women is under-studied in Bangladesh; data are needed to create and adjust programs to improve their use of health care services. The government of Bangladesh may consider more strategies to address reproductive health care services for urban migrant women. These could include ensuring the availability of services in urban areas for migrant women, especially those who originated in villages and migrated for work and education. It is expected that results from this study will assist in future planning of health and social interventions, internal migration policies, and in defining future research agendas.

Abbreviations

ANC: 

Antenatal Care

HIV/AIDS: 

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

STI: 

Sexually Transmitted Infections

UHS: 

Urban Health Survey

UNC: 

University of North Carolina

Declarations

Acknowledgements

(i) Global Health Research Capacity Strengthening Program (GHR-CAPS) for postdoctoral bursary in global health research at McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

(ii) MEASURE Evaluation (University of North Carolina Population Center), funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), USA and NIPORT (Bangladesh) for allowing access to the 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey Data. Data for this research were provided by MEASURE Evaluation, but the views expressed do not necessarily reflect those of USAID, the US government, or MEASURE Evaluation.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Population Sciences, University of Dhaka
(2)
Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University
(3)
Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre

References

  1. Halder AK et al. Causes of early childhood deaths in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2009;4(12):e8145.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Buckner B. Migration and migrant characteristics. In: 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Dhaka and Chapel Hill: National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), MEASURE Evaluation, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh (ICDDRB), Associates for Community and Population Research (ACPR; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. Hussain A, Keramat Ali SM, Kvale G. Determinants of mortality among children in the urban slums of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health. 1999;4(11):758–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Islam N. Dhaka now, contemporary urban development. Dhaka: Bangladesh Geographical Society (BGS); 2005.Google Scholar
  5. Afsar R. International migration and the development nexus: The case of Bangladesh. in Regional Conference on Migration, Development and Pro-Poor Policy Choices in Asia, June 22–23. 2003. Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  6. Peters D et al. Poverty and access to health care in developing countries. Ann New York Acad Sci. 2008;1136:161–71.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR) and World Health Organization (WHO). The right to health, in Fact sheet no. 31. Geneva: United Nations; 2008.Google Scholar
  8. McKay L, Macintyre S, Ellaway A. Migration and health: A review of the international literature, in Occasional Paper no. 12, M.S.P.H.S. Unit, Editor. 2003: Glasgow, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Zimmerman C, Kiss L, Hossain M. Migration and health: A framework for 21st century policy-making. PLoS Med. 2011;8(5):e1001034.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Gushulak B, MacPherson D. Population mobility and health: An overview of the relationships between movement and population health. J Travel Med. 2004;11(3):171–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Wang Y et al. Sexual and reproductive health among unmarried rural–urban female migrants in Shanghai China: A comparative analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(8):3578–89.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies A, Basten A, Frattini C. Migration: A social determinant of the health of migrants, in Assisting Migrants and Communities (AMAC): Analysis of "Social Determinants and Health Inequalities" project. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (IOM); 2006.Google Scholar
  13. Salahudin M. Migration experience and health status in Indonesia: Life history analysis using IFLS data, in XXVth IUUSP Meeting. 2005: Tours-France.Google Scholar
  14. Arifin E, Ananta A, Punpuing S. Impact of migration on health in Kanchanaburi, Thailand, in XXVth IUSSP International Population Conference. 2005: Tours, France.Google Scholar
  15. Zheng Z, Lian P. Health vulnerability among temporary migrants in urban China, in XXVth International Population Conference. 2005: Tours, France.Google Scholar
  16. Chen J, Liu H, Xie Z. Effects of rural–urban return migration on women’s family planning and reproductive health attitudes and behavior in rural China. Stud Fam Plan. 2010;41(1):31–44.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Islam M, Azad K. Rural–urban migration and child survival in urban Bangladesh: Are the urban migrants and poor disadvantaged? J Biosoc Sci. 2008;40(1):83–96.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lindstrom D, Herrera Hernandez C. Internal migration and contraceptive knowledge and use in Guatemala. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2006;32(3):146–53.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Yang X, Derlega V, Luo H. Migration and HIV/STD risk in China, in XXVth International Population Conference. 2005: Tours, France.Google Scholar
  20. Subaiya L. International migration and the use of reproductive and child health services in Peru, in Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) Working Papers. 2007, United States Agency for International Development (USAID).Google Scholar
  21. Van Landingham, M., Impacts of rural to urban migration on the health of working-age adult migrants in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in XXVth International Population Conference. 2005: Tours, France.Google Scholar
  22. Gubry P, et al. Temporary migration in big Vietnam cities: Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. The summary record of the PRUD’s international conference (Paris, UNESCO, 5–7 March 2004). 2004, Paris: International affair (The Department of International Cooperation and Development).Google Scholar
  23. Archan, K. and P. Anngia, Reproductive health status of left behind wives of male out migrants: A study of rural Bihar, India, in XXVth International Population Conference. 2005: Tours, France.Google Scholar
  24. Al Amin M. Factors behind internal migration and migrants’ livelihood aspects: Dahaka City, Bangladesh, in School of Economics and Management. Sweden: Lund University; 2010.Google Scholar
  25. Ishtiaque A, Ullah M. The influence of factors of migration on the migration status of rural–urban migrants in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Hum Geograp. 2013;7(2):45–52.Google Scholar
  26. Haque M, Islam M. Rural to urban migration and household living conditions in Bangladesh. Dhaka Univ J Sci. 2012;60(2):253–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), NIPORT, MEASURE Evaluation, ICDDRB, and ACPR, et al. 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Dhaka and Chapel Hill: NIPORT, MEASURE Evaluation, ICDDRB, and ACPR; 2008.Google Scholar
  28. MEASURE Evaluation. Bangladesh 2006 Urban Health Survey Released. 2013; Available from: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/news/bangladesh-2006-urban-health-survey-released.
  29. Jamil K, et al. Bangladesh Urban Health Survey 2013: Preliminary Results. 2014, National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), MEASURE Evaluation, UNC-Chapel Hill, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Resaearch Bangladesh (ICDDRB).Google Scholar
  30. UNDP. Human Development Report 2015: Work for Human Development. New York: UNDP; 2015.Google Scholar

Copyright

© Islam and Gagnon. 2016

Advertisement